UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their
accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.
UV Articles 2011
SETi prepares high-volume manufacturing of UV LEDs
Sensor Electronic Technology Inc (SETi) of Columbia, SC, USA has put in
motion an expansion plan to both expand its R&D efforts and to transition its
production line to high-volume manufacturing, making it what it claims is the
first high-volume supplier of ultraviolet (UV) LEDs shorter than 365nm,
initially scaling to supply quantities of more than 100 million LEDs per year.
SETi says it was first to market with short-wavelength UV LEDs in 2004 and has
since supplier a portfolio of LEDs and high-power LED lamps from 240nm to 355nm.
SETi currently operates a 15,000ft2 ISO9001-certified facility, where it runs a
vertically integrated R&D and small-volume production line with epitaxial
growth, chip fab, packaging and test and analysis, plus a prototyping line for
integration of its LEDs into complete systems.
The first phase of the expansion, which is currently underway, involves
retrofitting this facility to 20,000ft2 and converting it into the firm’s R&D
center. The expansion in this facility will be focused predominantly around
additional cleanroom space for chip fab and device packaging, where new mask
designs, processing techniques and packaging solutions will be developed to
further improve the performance of SETi’s UVTOP and UVClean devices and to
ensure that SETi maintains its position in the UV LED market.
SETi recently closed on the purchase of a new property, where it will focus its
high-volume manufacturing lines. The firm’s growth plans include expansion of
this new facility to 130,000ft2. Initially, it will house SETi’s proprietary
production metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactors, where the
company will focus on the high-volume manufacturing of its migration-enhanced
MOCVD (MEMOCVD) process that will be used for the scale up in volume of its UV
LEDs and a new Engineering Center for the development of new applications and
the production of custom solutions.
Xylem's WEDECO Spektron UV Systems launched With Widest Validation For
Drinking Water Norms, Meeting Needs Of Small And Mid-Sized Drinking Water
Xylem Inc., the global water solutions business that this week spun off from
ITT Corporation, has announced advanced features to its WEDECO Spektron
ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection product range. The upgrades to the closed
vessel UV reactors are aimed at the municipal drinking water market for flows of
a few cubic meters per hour (m³/h) to more than 1,000 m³/h.
All Spektron units will be rolled out as they earn DVGW/ ÖNORM certification,
and CE and UL registration. In addition, a range of units will also be validated
under full compliance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ultraviolet
Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM 2006). The entire series is expected to be
fully validated by mid-2012.
"The Spektron series is designed to meet all common disinfection requirements
including 3-log Cryptosporidum reduction," said Mike Newberry, product manager
for Xylem's WEDECO UV systems. "And since it will be evaluated to all norms, it
will fit any legal requirements for drinking water."
The new Spektron units will be equipped with WEDECO's latest ECORAY UV lamp and
ballast technology. In combination with the option of variable power output
control, they feature excellent energy efficiency under all operating
conditions. While in dim mode, the ECORAY lamps realize energy savings of up to
20 per cent of the energy and use up to 80 per cent less mercury than the
previous lamp generation. With respect to sustainability, the UV lamp's power
savings translate to a carbon dioxide reduction of up to 500 kg per lamp over
the lamp's life cycle.
In addition, now all of the Spektron units can be ordered with an automatic
wiping system and will have improved hydraulics conditions inside the reactor.
Whilst the smaller units will continue to be equipped with WEDECO's CrossMix
module, the larger units will have the newly developed OptiCone installed. This
patent pending flow diverter ensures optimal hydraulic conditions inside the
reactor under all inlet piping configurations. The excellent performance of the
units will be continuously monitored by an ÖNORM compliant UV sensor that
fulfils reference sensor requirements.
Deep-UV LED maker SETi nominated for South Carolina Manufacturer of the Year
Deep-UV LED maker SETi nominated for South Carolina Manufacturer of the Year
Deep ultraviolet (UV) LED maker Sensor Electronic Technology Inc (SETi) of
Columbia, SC, USA has been recognized by the South Carolina Chamber of Commerce
as one of 12 outstanding manufacturers to be put forward for the South Carolina
Manufacturer of the Year Award.
SETi has pioneered the development and manufacturing of semiconductor materials
using aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaN) and supplies UV LEDs using these
UV LEDs can be used in applications from sensing and detection of harmful gases
and airborne diseases to disinfection of water, surfaces and air in markets
including medical, industrial, military and consumer.
Over the past few years, SETi’s UV LED products have been transferred from
research to production and the firm now operates production procedures certified
to ISO9001 standards. Despite the economic climate, SETi’s business has more
than doubled in the last two years and the company is now planning a large
expansion to further ramp its UV LED production capacity.
August 5, 2011:
New water system zaps bugs with ultraviolet light
TRACY, Calif. (AP) - A high-tech water-treatment system is making some of
Northern California's cleanest water even cleaner.
The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission on Tuesday unveiled its Tesla
Water Treatment Facility, which is the largest of its kind in California and
third largest in North America.
The $114 million facility in Tracy uses ultraviolet light to sterilize drinking
water and prevent gastro-intestinal illness caused by harmful micro-organisms.
The chemical-free system will benefit the San Francisco water agency's 2.5
million Bay Area customers who receive their water from the Hetch Hetchy
Hetch Hetchy water is already very clean because of the lack of livestock and
people near the reservoir.
The San Francisco Chronicle reports that Los Angeles, Las Vegas and other cities
are planning to launch their own ultraviolet treatment facilities.
July 25, 2011:
Record Performance of UVC LED's for Germicidal Disinfection by Crystal IS
Press Release Source: Crystal IS, Inc. On Monday July 25,
GREEN ISLAND, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Crystal IS, Inc., the leading developer
of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC LEDs), has today announced devices
demonstrating world record performance at the optimal germicidal wavelength,
260nm. In recently-published results, Crystal IS has revealed a 9.2 mW device
operating at 100mA continuous wave current, (see Grandusky et al., Appl. Phys.
Express 4 (2011). Total power of 100mW in pulsed mode was likewise observed.
“We are proud of this record result and of the unprecedented progress this past
year towards high efficiency, long life UVC LEDs,” commented Leo Schowalter,
founder and CTO of Crystal IS.
“This unsurpassed performance opens up new opportunities for germicidal
irradiation applications,” commented Steven Berger, CEO of Crystal IS. “Clean
and safe water, air, and surfaces to meet the needs of today’s world is our
goal. We are leading the world in this technology and are currently sampling
devices with the foremost market leaders across multiple industries.”
The UVC LEDs developed by Crystal IS operate at the optimal germicidal
wavelength, and their proven efficacy, coupled with low power requirements,
small size, and longer lifespan, make the diodes ideal for use in water and air
sterilization products. Initial applications will include residential and office
point-of-use systems such as water coolers and counter-top systems providing
alternatives to bottled water. Hospital air for reduced infectious disease
spread as well as safety of our food supply are additional application areas
July 7, 2011:
Lasers to kill viruses and improve DVDs
Ultraviolet semiconductor diode lasers are widely used in data processing,
information storage and biology. However, their applications have been limited
by their size, cost and power.
The current generation of ultraviolet lasers is based on a material called
gallium nitride. However, Jianlin Liu, a professor of electrical engineering at
the Riverside Bourns College of Engineering, University of California, together
with his colleagues, has made a breakthrough in zinc oxide nanowire waveguide
lasers. These come in smaller sizes, lower costs, higher powers and shorter
wavelengths. The results of Liu’s studies have been published in the July issue
of Nature Nanotechnology.
Until now, zinc oxide nanowires couldn’t be used in real world light emission
applications because of the lack of a p-type, or positive type, material
required by all semiconductors. Liu solved the problem by doping the zinc oxide
nanowires with antimony, a metalloid element, to create the p-type material. The
p-type zinc oxide nanowires were connected with n-type, or negative type, zinc
oxide material to form what is called a p-n junction diode. Powered by a
battery, a highly directional laser light emits only from the ends of the
The discovery could have a wide-range of impacts. Zinc oxide nanowire lasers
could be used to read and process much denser data on storage media such as DVDs
because the ultraviolet has shorter wavelength than other lights. A DVD storing
two hours of music could now store four or six hours of music. The ultra-small
laser light beam from a nanowire laser can also penetrate a living cell, or
excite its function from a bad cell to a good cell. The light could also be used
to purify drinking water.
For photonics, the ultraviolet light could provide super-fast data processing
and transmission. Reliable small ultraviolet semiconductor diode lasers may help
develop ultraviolet wireless communication technology, which is potentially
better than state-of-the-art infrared communication technologies used in various
electronic information systems. It’s a work in progress.
April 7, 2011:
Bond for $22M UV system moves forward; Light is used to treat drinking water
News-sentinel.com, By Bob Caylor of The News-Sentinel
Meeting new federal standards for treating drinking water will cost Fort
Wayne an estimated $22.1 million – but by financing that work with a bond issue,
City Utilities expects to pay the cost through existing water rates.
The Fort Wayne Board of Public Works on Wednesday authorized that bond issue,
which still must be approved by City Council and by the Indiana Utility
City Utilities officials had some good news to share about the ultraviolet-light
disinfection system, mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Matthew Wirtz, City Utilities' deputy director of engineering, said that through
discussions with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management, the city
has been able to dial down the power requirements for UV lights in the system.
Instead of costing perhaps $200,000 to run the lights, it's more likely to cost
$25,000 to $50,000 a year to power those lights.
Over time, Wirtz said, the city hopes to be able to cut back significantly on
chemicals it now uses to disinfect water from the St. Joseph River before it's
piped throughout the city. Those savings might be as much as $100,000 to
$150,000 a year.
April 2014 is the deadline set by the EPA for the city to have UV disinfection
in place. Engineering and final design work for the system is supposed to be
done later this year. Construction would begin in 2013, and the system would
begin operating that year.
March 11, 2011:
Upper Gwynedd improving creek health, saving cash with UV system
The Mercury, by Bradley Schlegel, Journal Register News
As part of its 2011 budget deliberations, township officials allocated
approximately $1.2 million to implement an Ultra Violet Disinfection System at
the Upper Gwynedd Township’s Wastewater Treatment Plant.
Instead of chlorine, the new system will utilize several light bulbs to clean
the water, according to Commissioner Tom Duffy. He said the procedure will
eliminate any potential chlorine discharges into the Wissahickon Creek.
The fully automated system will increase plant efficiency, according to township
Manager Len Perrone.
“We’re improving the process,” Duffy said. “The plant’s neighbors will not
notice a change. The goal is to enhance the environment by improving the health
of the stream.” ...
March 10, 2011:
Utility Begins Work on 240 mgd UV Disinfection Facility
Waterworld.com, by David J. Opferman, Marco Aieta, Ramesh
Kashinkunti and Jason Fleming
Artist rendering of an aerial view of the proposed UV disinfection facility
The Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) has a long history of leadership
and innovation in the drinking water industry. To continue that tradition,
embrace advanced treatment technology and improve public health, a significant
advancement is currently underway at GCWW's Richard Miller Treatment Plant (RMTP),
where a new ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system is being constructed.
GCWW supplies approximately 1 billion gallons of water per year to more than
1 million consumers in the greater Cincinnati area. The majority of this water
is produced at the RMTP, which has a treatment capacity of 240 mgd and treats an
average flow of 126 mgd. The RMTP is a conventional surface water treatment
plant that draws its raw water from the Ohio River. Its treatment process train
includes conventional pretreatment (rapid mixing, flocculation and lamella plate
clarification), sand filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption
contactors. The GAC contactors use 11.5 feet of granular activated carbon and
provide 15 minutes of empty bed contact time. Chlorination applied after the GAC
contactors meets primary disinfection requirements for Giardia and virus
inactivation, but is ineffective against Cryptosporidium - a chlorine-resistant
pathogen now regulated under the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment
The finished water produced by the RMTP is of excellent quality and meets or
exceeds all current drinking water standards (including LT2ESWTR requirements
for Cryptosporidium). However, the plant's Ohio River water source has the
potential to be affected by municipal wastewater discharges, combined and
sanitary sewer overflows, and urban and agricultural storm water runoff. Given
these factors, additional treatment requirements for Cryptosporidium or other
emerging pathogens may be required in the future.
To address these treatment challenges, GCWW is constructing a 240-mgd, post-GAC
UV disinfection facility at RMTP. This facility will provide an additional
disinfection barrier and enhanced protection against a wide range of microbial
contaminants from the Ohio River watershed. It will also ensure compliance with
the LT2ESWTR, regardless of bin classification and related treatment
requirements. (Under the rule, filtered water systems will be classified in one
of four treatment categories (bins) based on the amount of Cryptosporidium in
their water supply).
Consistent with GCWW's history of proactive treatment improvements, the UV
system is being voluntarily installed as a non-regulatory driven initiative.
Planning and Design
Planning and design of the UV Disinfection Facility Project was executed in
three phases. GCWW began evaluating UV process upgrades in 2000 with the Phase 1
UV Feasibility Study, which assessed UV disinfection effectiveness for emerging
pathogens in a bench-scale collimated beam study. Sequential treatment using UV
and free chlorine was evaluated for multiple target pathogens, including
Cryptosporidium oocysts, Bacillus subtilis spores, E. coli, MS2 coliphages, PRD1
phage, adenovirus, mycobacterium, and Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Other
investigations included chlorinated DBP formation after UV treatment and the
effect of UV disinfection on microbial regrowth in the distribution system.
The Phase 2 Pre-Design Study, completed in 2004, identified post-GAC as the
optimal UV process train location, and analyzed its hydraulic grade line
profile. Field tests and hydraulic measurements determined that approximately 6
feet of head was available between the GAC contactors and the finished water
clearwells. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was conducted on various
reactor combinations to predict headloss through the reactors and associated
upstream/downstream piping. The analysis determined that sufficient hydraulic
head was available to install either medium-pressure or low-pressure high-output
UV systems within the existing process train without pumping.
For Phase 3, GCWW looked to partner with a consultant team to complete the
planning and design of the UV facility. In 2006, CDM, in partnership with
Carollo Engineers, was awarded a contract to provide engineering planning,
design and construction services for the new UV disinfection facility. The team
also included RA Consultants, a local Cincinnati civil engineering consulting
firm. During Phase 3, GCWW and the CDM-Carollo team conducted process
engineering, preliminary design, a UV/AOP taste and odor study, a UV/AOP pilot
study, UV equipment procurement and detailed design of the UV facility and
Designing a state-of-the-art UV disinfection facility, and ensuring its
reliability and flexibility, was possible thanks to the successful collaborative
relationship between CDM, Carollo, RA Consultants and GCWW.
Early in the project, the CDM-Carollo team used CFD modeling and UV system
simulation software (UVCAT) to evaluate and optimize UV system design concepts.
The analysis considered the enhanced disinfection of emerging pathogens and the
application of UV light with hydrogen peroxide for the reduction of organic
micro-pollutants. The analysis provided a clear understanding of the key design
issues impacting successful implementation of the project, including reactor
size, number of reactors, disinfection target and variations in UV
The team also used the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) public
health risk assessment model to quantify the project's public health benefits.
Results indicated that implementing UV disinfection at the RMTP would reduce
public health risks associated with Cryptosporidium to less than 1 infection per
100,000 persons. This result is expected to save $700,000 to $1 million per year
in public health avoidance costs.
The UV equipment was selected during the design phase of the project using a
competitive equipment procurement effort. Equipment procurement documents
(drawing and specifications) for both low-pressure and medium-pressure systems
were developed. A life cycle-based selection approach was used to compare the
bids received, taking into account capital costs and life-cycle costs, including
those associated with power and lamp replacement. Based on the evaluation,
medium-pressure UV reactors from Calgon Carbon Corp. were selected. Procuring
the equipment during the design phase allowed the design of the UV facility to
be tailored to the selected medium-pressure technology.
The selected design consists of eight Calgon Carbon Sentinel® 48" Chevron
reactors. Each UV reactor train will be rated at 35 mgd, for a total firm
capacity of 245 mgd with seven duty trains and one standby train. Each reactor
will house five 20-kilowatt (kW) medium-pressure lamps. The Sentinel® system
will provide UV disinfection of a wide range of waterborne pathogens, including
Cryptosporidium and Giardia, using high-intensity, medium-pressure lamp
technology. The system is designed for a disinfection target of 99.99%
Cryptosporidium inactivation-the highest disinfection credit allowed under
federal drinking water regulations.
The UV system will be housed in a new building that provides approximately
19,600 square feet of space across two levels. The reactors will be housed on
the lower level, with electrical and other support spaces situated on the upper
level. The building will be initially outfitted with eight UV trains, but it is
sized to accommodate two additional future trains, for a total of 10 trains.
To help offset the increased energy demand of the UV treatment process, GCWW
will also install solar panels on the roof of the UV Facility. The system will
include 160 solar panels capable of generating approximately 45 kW of
electricity, which, in combination with other GCWW solar installations, is
enough to meet the majority of the power needed by the UV system under average
daily flow conditions. Renewable Energy Credits provided by the local electric
supplier will further help offset the operational costs of the UV facility.
In the future, GCWW will have the option to supplement this enhanced
disinfection process with a UV/peroxide advanced oxidation process (AOP) for
removal of emerging chemical contaminants, as well as taste- and odor-causing
compounds. The UV facility was designed with features that will facilitate a
conversion to the AOP process if this is ever needed.
Phase 3 was completed in July 2010, when bids for the construction of the UV
facility were received. A $20.3 million construction contract was awarded to
Adams Robinson Enterprises of Dayton, OH.
Phase 4 of the project is ongoing, and involves the construction, start-up and
commissioning of the UV facility. Construction began in September 2010 and is
anticipated to be complete in December 2012. The CDM-Carollo team is providing
engineering services during construction. When completed, this UV disinfection
system will be one of the largest UV disinfection drinking water facilities in
North America, and it will significantly improve public health protection for
Cincinnati's water supply customers.
Australia's Largest UV Disinfection System
Trojan Technologies and exclusive distributor in Australia, Aquatec-Maxcon
PTY Ltd., have been selected by the Eastern Tertiary Alliance to provide the
ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system for the Eastern Treatment Plant Tertiary
Upgrade Project in Melbourne, Australia.
Trojan will be supplying seven closed vessel (in-pipe) UV reactors equipped with
revolutionary TrojanUV Solo Lamp™ Technology. The UV system will disinfect
average and peak tertiary treated effluent flows of 380 and 700 million liters
(101 and 187 million gallons) per day respectively, making it the largest UV
installation in Australia.
The objective of the upgrade project is to significantly improve the quality of
treated water at the plant. This will further reduce the impact associated with
the current discharge quality on the receiving marine environment Boags Rocks,
near Gunnamatta Beach, as well as produce a high quality recycled water resource
which can be used for a broader range of non-potable recycling applications.
These include residential third-pipe schemes (e.g. toilet flushing, garden
watering, car washing), watering public gardens, open areas and sports grounds,
and irrigating food crops.
“This is the kind of environmental solution we’re proud to be part of; one that
will have immediate positive impact on aquatic life and recreational waters,”
says Marv DeVries, president, Trojan Technologies.
“We’re proud to have our new Solo Lamp™ selected and stand out as the
disinfection technology of choice.”
The Owner, Melbourne Water, had specific requirements for this project, all of
which were met by the successful team of Trojan and Aquatec-Maxcon. These
• An energy efficient solution with the lowest UV lamp count
• A sustainable water treatment solution with reduced carbon emissions
• Local sales and service support personnel from a highly reputable manufacturer
• A state-of-the-art system that would undergo industry best practice validation
and meet the delivery times set out by the project team
“Trojan is a company driven by innovation. Our flexible, customer-centered
approach combined with Aquatec-Maxcon’s comprehensive local input enabled us to
provide Melbourne Water with this leading-edge solution,” says Jennifer Muller,
director, municipal markets, Trojan Technologies.
“Further recognizing that this would be the largest UV installation in
Australia, this project was of paramount importance to Trojan in demonstrating
our global leadership and strong commitment to addressing water scarcity issues
around the world.”