UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their
accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.
UV Articles 2008
Image Making A Comeback At CES
CRN.com ChannelWeb, by Andrew R Hickey
Sharper Image, the struggling consumer electronics retailer that met its
demise after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in February (2008),
is planning a comeback at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas
In an e-mail sent to CES attendees on Friday, Sharper Image said it will
launch more than 20 new products that will be available in a "wide range of
retail stores in 2009."
"Please join us for the much-anticipated launch of the 'New Era of Sharper
Image,'" the e-mail stated.
"Our all new electronics line brings back to the marketplace the best things
that the Sharper Image brand represents - innovation, premium performance
and unique designs," the e-mail continued. "We'll be relaunching with a
range of wireless audio, bedside audio, portable audio and speaker systems
Earlier this year, San Francisco-based Sharper Image filed for bankruptcy
after experiencing declining sales since 2004. The company recorded net
losses in fiscal 2005 to 2007, which continued into 2008. Dwindling consumer
spending and negative publicity surrounding its Ionic Breeze air purifiers
were integral to the bankruptcy filing.
At its peak, Sharper Image had 186 stores nationwide, while also selling
through a monthly catalog and a Web site. As of June 1, 2008 96 Sharper
Image stores had completed liquidation and were closed. The remaining stores
and assets were bought out by Hilco Merchant Resources and Gordon Brothers
Group. Since then, all remaining stores have been shuttered.
On Friday, hinting at its pending attempt at a comeback, Sharper Image's Web
site simply read: "Sorry to keep you in the dark. But, there's something big
coming. Soon. Stay tuned."
Disinfecting Marine Vessel Ballast Water With UV
To assist operators of cruise ships, tankers, semi-submersibles, jack-up
rigs and other large ocean-going vessels to meet the International Maritime
Organisation’s (IMO’s) impending ballast water discharge requirements, UV
disinfection specialist Hanovia has partnered with three of the world’s
leading systems integrators to provide validated, on-board water treatment
systems that are easy to install and use.
All ocean-going vessels take on water to provide ballast and stability. It
is usually taken on in coastal port areas and transported to the next port
of call – sometimes on the other side of the world – where it may be
discharged. Much of this water contains marine microorganisms such as
zooplankton, algae, bacteria and the eggs, cysts and larvae of various
species. While many die in transit, some survive and invade the local marine
environment, out-competing native species and causing serious damage to
native ecosystems. Environmental damage caused by ballast water is now
regarded as one of the greatest threats to the world’s oceans.
Two methods have been proposed to combat this problem: onboard ballast water
treatment and ballast water exchange. As the name suggests, ballast water
treatment involves treatment of ballast water prior to discharge, while
ballast water exchange involves ballasting and de-ballasting in the open
ocean before coming into ports and coastal waters. This open ocean exchange
is not an ideal solution as it is potentially unsafe and can destabilise the
vessel. Also, because existing ballast water exchange systems do not
completely drain the tanks, sediment and a residual amount of water can
remain, leaving behind non-indigenous species which could be discharged in
As well as being unsafe, open ocean ballast water exchange is difficult to
regulate and monitor, so many operators simply do not do it. Because of this
the IMO is setting much tougher standards to control ballast water practices
and has published two Conventions to tackle the problem. The first is the
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL),
dealing with waste and sewage discharge from ships (ratified in 2003), and
the second is the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention, to control the
spread of alien species (due for ratification in 2009). Under the BWM
Convention, vessels will have to treat all ballast water so that discharges
contain less than 10 viable organisms per cubic metre equal to or greater in
size than 50 µm in size.
To help operators confront these requirements Hanovia, in tandem with the
leading systems integrators, has devised a UV disinfection system that, in
conjunction with a filter, kills or removes virtually all microorganisms
present in ballast water. The combined system comprises a high intensity,
medium pressure UV disinfection unit and an automatic back-flush filter.
After passing through the filter to remove larger organisms, the ballast
water flows into the UV chamber to destroy smaller organisms. During
de-ballasting, the water bypasses the filter but again flows through the UV
chamber where further irradiation kills any remaining microorganisms.
The entire system has a very small footprint and can be mounted at any
angle, making it easy to install even in the confined spaces of a vessel’s
equipment room. Once installed, the system requires little effort to operate
by the crew. It can be controlled by a master PLC unit which can be
integrated into the vessel’s machinery automation network. The UV unit is
equipped with automatic wipers to keep the UV lamps clean, and the only
maintenance required by the crew is the replacement of the UV lamps once a
year and occasional preventative maintenance procedures.
Crystal IS, Inc. Wins $800,000 Department of Defense Grant to Develop UV-LEDs
Crystal IS, Inc., the world's leading manufacturer of ultraviolet light
emitting diodes (UV LEDs) based on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate
technology, today announced it will receive an $800,000 appropriation from
the U.S. Department of Defense to advance development of large AlN crystals
for effective deep ultraviolet sources.
"Our unique technology allows us to manufacture UV LEDs with unsurpassed
performance at truly commercially viable costs," said Crystal IS CEO Steven
Berger. "This grant serves as yet another validation of using AlN-based UV-LEDs
to enable cleaner water and air for consumer, industrial and government
As part of the program, Crystal IS will partner with the Army Research
Laboratory in Adelphi, MD as well as the Electro-Optics Center (EOC) at Penn
State University. The program will leverage the recent development of large
single-crystal AlN substrates into robust semiconductor sources of deep
ultraviolet light as well as other high power, high temperature applications
of great importance to the military.
AlN has been demonstrated to be superior for deep UV light-emitting
applications. The primary applications of UV-LEDs are as long-lasting,
energy efficient, water and air disinfection devices. Crystal IS Inc is
developing its deep UV-LEDs at 265nm, the peak germicidal wavelength.
LUKOIL Upgrades Environmental Complex At Perm Refinery
Vagit Alekperov, President of OAO LUKOIL, and Grigory Rapota,
Plenipotentiary of the RF President in the Volga Federal District,
participated in the festive ceremony held in Perm on October 31 to honor the
50th anniversary of OOO “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez”.
As part of the ceremony held at the refinery, newly constructed and
renovated facilities of the environmental complex, which incorporates
facilities for mechanical, chemical and biochemical treatment, mechanical
and sorption filters, ultraviolet disinfection units and a surplus sludge
dehydration unit, were presented.
According to LUKOIL , the complex is designed for deep purificaiton of the
industrial sewage generated by “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez” and dozens of
other plants and enterprises which form the Osentsovsk industrial hub
located in Perm. The complex capacity is 68 thousand cu.m. of purified
industrial sewage per day.
Cutting-edge technologies and equipment allow to remove hydrocarbons,
nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing pollutants, thus making the quality of
the purified industrial sewage compliant with fishery requirements.
Application of filters with coal sorbents prevents discharge of over 40 tons
of petroleum products per annum into surface water bodies. Application of
the ultraviolet disinfection method instead of classic chemical treating
methods to purify the sewage from pathogenic microorganisms is a
characteristic feature of the complex. Application of new technologies for
industrial sewage purification also allows to cut river water consumption of
the enterprise by 10 %.
Since 2006, over RUR 500 million has been invested into construction of new
facilities and reconstruction of the existing ones at OOO
“LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez” environmental complex.
Municipality adding UV disinfection facility
PiqueNewsMagazine.com /by Claire Piech
Construction on an ultra violet (UV) disinfection facility is expected to
begin this fall, as part of the municipality’s $12 million upgrades to
Whistler’s 21 Mile Creek water system.
Council is expected to award the construction contract within the next
month, and the Resort Municipality of Whistler has budgeted $1.7 million for
the UV system, which has been on the books since 2006, according to capital
projects manager John Nelson.
“We still chlorinate both our surface source and our ground water source,
but the UV is just an added level of treatment that is necessary on surface
sources,” Nelson explained.
The 900 square foot UV facility will be built next to the Whistler cemetery
and will be accessed via the cemetery’s road off Alta Lake Road.
Residents can expect some disruption while construction of the facility and
road repaving are underway, but the cemetery will be open for internment
services and visitors, said an RMOW press release.
The municipality will also make sure burial area boundaries and the
scattering garden are both marked and protected throughout the construction
period. And contractors will stop building during any burial services.
Currently, the 21 Mile Creek water is disinfected by chlorination and piped
to the village under Alta Lake.
The UV disinfection facility is part of four upgrades to Whistler’s 21 Mile
Creek water system, which provides about 75 per cent of the town’s water
supply. The upgrades are intended to improve the safety and capacity of the
municipality’s water system, said RMOW staff.
The municipality is tapping into a new groundwater source at Rainbow Park
that will connect to the village’s water grid through a pipeline along
Lorimer Road. Both the pipeline installation and the pump station
construction are underway. Each is expected to cost $5.2 million, said
An upgrade to the 21 Mile Aquifer Wells is also scheduled to take place
between 2010 and 2012.
Both the Alpine Meadows and Emerald Estates neighbourhoods have their own
water systems, and the Benchlands is serviced by the Blackcomb system, which
is connected to the main system.
The RMOW is also looking to develop a new groundwater source at Function
Junction to supply the athletes’ village.
Whistler’s water is continually checked by the municipality, which spends
$1.19 million per year on water operations. The sampling and testing program
involves 33 different sample points where the water is tested for
bacteriological contamination like E. coli and coliform.
In 2007, E. coli and coliform tests showed there were no bacteria in the
Larne sewage works leads the way with UV technology
REGIONAL Development Minister Conor Murphy officially opened Larne's new
£14m wastewater treatment works last Wednesday.
The plant is the first to use ultra violet light technology - new
eco-friendly technology which removes bacteria from the treatment process
without the use of chemical disinfectants, leading to improvements in water
quality in the area.
The new NI Water site caters for a population of 33,000, and will provide a
state of the art facility ensuring the level of treatment meets European
Mr Murphy said: "This investment will ensure that this facility supports the
growth and ongoing development within the area, while protecting the local
environment. Protection of the lough's eco-system is particularly important
in this designated Area of Special Scientific Interest. The use of this
technology will ensure that NI Water is doing all it can to safeguard the
wetland environment, the shellfish and the bird wildlife.
"Investment of approximately £1million per day is taking place in upgrading
the water and sewerage system infrastructure. This facility is just one
example of the scale of investment required to provide cleaner beaches and
rivers, meet European standards, respond to increasing demand and provide
the region with a modern service."
Chris Mellor, Chairman and Chief Executive of NI Water added: "NI Water is
committed to investing in projects that will deliver the best innovative
solutions and benefit the local economy, community and environment.
Extensive research was conducted into sourcing environmentally friendly
technology with a proven track record that could meet the standards set by
the Northern Ireland Environment Agency for this area.
"Using UV technology is better for the environment as there are less
chemicals used in the treatment processes and it also allows an increase in
the capacity of water which can be treated, reducing the likelihood of
flooding in the area.
"I would like to pay tribute to the expertise of the team involved in this
scheme and congratulate our project managers and contractors on achieving
our compliance standard on schedule."
Bottled water to be given to people affected by aqueduct leak
WAWARSING - The New York City Department of Environmental Protection will
cover the cost of bottled water for residents of the U.S. Route 209/Smith
Road area who have been affected by leaks in the city's Delaware Aqueduct,
town Supervisor Edward Jennings announced on Wednesday.
Jennings said the water will be provided by the Leisure Time Bottled Water
Co. in Monticello and will go to 34 families. The Ulster County Health
Department has taken water samples from the Route 209/Smith Road area and
discovered high levels of E. coli, especially in dug wells. Jennings said
he, in turn, negotiated an agreement with New York City DEP Regional Manager
Ira Stern for the city to reimburse the town for the cost of the bottled
water until ultraviolet treatment systems can be installed in each
affected home. The ultraviolet systems, which eliminate bacteria in water,
also will be paid for by New York City.
Germicidal UVC Lights Improve Clinical Pregnancy Rates For IVF Lab, New
A seven and a half-year study conducted in the In Vitro Fertilization
Cleanroom Laboratory of the Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network found
that the use of ultraviolet C or "UVC" lights installed in the HVAC system
had a clinically significant impact on clinical pregnancy rates (CPR). In
presenting the findings at the annual meeting of the American Society for
Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Kathryn C. Worrilow, Ph.D. reported that the +
beta and CPR increased by an average of 17.8% and 18.2%, respectively,
following 10 of the 13 change-outs of the Steril-Aire UVC EmittersT over the
Clinical success in an IVF lab is critically dependent upon the quality of
the ambient air, which in turn, is directly dependent upon the HVAC system.
The study led by Dr. Worrilow tracked three key components in the HVAC
system - particulate filters, gas phase filters and UVC lights - and the
timing of their replacement - to determine whether these individual
components affected markers of preimplantation embryogenesis and clinical
According to the findings, "There were no statistically significant
differences associated with the replacement of the particulate or gas phase
filters in Testing Quarters 1-48. In contrast, immediately following 10 of
the 13 UVC Emitter change-outs, the + beta hCG and clinical pregnancy rates
increased 17.8% and 18.2%, respectively."
The study goes on to say: "UVC energy will destroy 90 - 99% of airborne
microbial contaminants. By targeting the DNA and RNA of microorganisms, UVC
degrades and abates the proliferation of airborne and surface embryotoxic
organics. Of equal significance to the developing embryo is the suggested
impact of UVC irradiation on the degradation of VOCs. Our work has
demonstrated that VOC levels as low as 2.2 ppb can be embryotoxic to the
embryo cultured in vitro."
The authors conclude: "Although the use of UVC light represents a departure
from the standard HVAC design used in many IVF laboratories, the current
study suggests that the use of UVC germicidal technology in the HVAC system
serving the IVF laboratory may play a critical role in providing optimal
ambient air towards improved clinical outcomes. The current study
demonstrated that a clinically significant relationship existed between the
replacement of the UVC Emitters and the associated clinical pregnancy
Robert Scheir, Ph.D., president of Steril-Aire, Inc., states: "This new data
provides scientific evidence of the germicidal benefits of UVC technology.
The potential benefits are far-reaching: not only for the potential to
improve CPR in IVF clinics, but also for enhancing infection control in
hospitals and healthcare environments, and for maintaining better ambient
air in medical and pharmaceutical manufacturing clean rooms."
Scheir adds: "The study also confirms the importance of adequate UVC output
and changeout frequency in achieving desired results. The study used
high-output Steril-Aire UVC lamps with a changeout schedule of 6-9 months.
In the 3 of 13 UVC replacement test quarters that did not result in improved
clinical pregnancy rates, outside factors may have played a role in the
outcomes. As long as the lamps were functioning properly and were changed on
schedule, results were consistently positive. The message to anyone using
UVC is that it is critical to select a device with adequate output and to
replace the device consistently at required intervals to maintain that
output. Otherwise, germicidal effectiveness will be diminished."
2008: UV Light Solutions
for Emerging Ballast Water Treatment Systems
WCPonline.com, by Jon McClean
High-power, compact UV systems are now being used to prevent the transit
across the globe of a wide variety of organisms in ships’ ballast water.
Ballast water is taken on board in ports of call to maintain stability when
the vessel is not laden and discharged as the vessel becomes laden with
This small system discharge is often released thousands of miles from the
port of embarkation and relocates microscopic plants, mussels, crabs and
recently, the fish pathogen viral hemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)1 far from
their native range.
UV systems are being incorporated in packages that use separation technology
to prepare the ballast water to be disinfected using UV light prior to
discharge. The UV systems are compact, use high power polychromatic lamps,
have automatic wiping mechanisms and are generally configured with lamps at
right angles to the flow. This orientation saves space and eliminates bends,
which are detrimental to flow profiles before and after the UV chambers.
Medium-pressure lamps are most often used in this application, as their
compact size permits a small treatment footprint, allowing skid mounting and
safe lamp removal.
More than 46,0002 commercial vessels—tankers, cruise liners, bulk carriers,
RO/RO ferries, container ships and barges— travel across the oceans carrying
cargo and passengers for transport, leisure and commerce. Between three to
four billion metric tons of ballast water move across the oceans annually.
Approximately 75 percent of these vessels are involved in intercontinental
trade. The asymmetric nature of this trade means that occasionally container
vessels arrive laden into US ports from China and embark empty, ballasted
with water taken on board in the US.
Likewise, coal and iron ore carriers arrive empty into Australian or South
American ports fully ballasted with water. And they discharge this ballast
water prior to taking cargo on board. Ballast water is also often used as a
trim aid in port when loading or unloading cargo.
It is estimated that 7,000 species are transported in ships ballast water.
The majority of these species do not survive the ballasting/de-ballasting
cycle, as the environment within the ballast tanks is hostile and not
conducive to permit colonies of organisms to survive. Those that do survive,
however, are usually hardy. And they frequently out-compete indigenous
species, surviving to establish a reproducing population.
Over 100 non-native species of marine organisms are known to have been
introduced globally by ballast water. While some appear benign, others are a
threat to biodiversity, fisheries and aquaculture.
The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) views the
threat of invasion by these species as “the greatest immediate threat to
most coastal state ecosystems.” Some introduced species severely deplete
native populations or deprive them of food. Others form colonies that can
other existing fauna.
Introduced toxic dinoflagellates cause red tides and algal blooms that can
affect or even kill shellfish, fish and sea birds. When eaten by humans,
these contaminated shellfish can cause paralysis or even fatality. In
southern Australia and along the west coast of the US, the Asian kelp
Undaria pinnatifida is rapidly
invading new areas, displacing the native seabed communities. Shipments of
the European oyster Ostrea edulis were brought from Washington to France to
supplement a low native stock. The virus Bonamia ostrea accompanied these
shipments and ended up destroying the remaining native stock of the European
oyster in France.
In the Black Sea, filter-feeding North American jellyfish (Mnemiopsis leidyi)
have on occasion reached densities of two lbs of biomass per nine cubic ft.
This culprit has depleted native zooplankton stocks to such an extent that
it contributed to the collapse of entire Black Sea commercial fisheries in
Salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) once used as packing material
for Atlantic oysters (Crassostrea virginica), has been introduced into
Oregon. The cordgrass continues to spread along the Oregon coast, taking
over mudflats and disrupting bird migrations. The fish pathogen VHS was
reported in the Great Lakes
area in 20036. The rapid transfer of the virus through all of the waterways
frequented by vessels dumping ballast is no coincidence.
The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) was banned for importation and
aquaculture in the US in the late 1980s; however, the crab was discovered in
San Francisco Bay in 1994. Introduction by ballast water is the probable
source. The crab burrows into riverbanks, dykes and levees causing erosion
The United Nations’ International Maritime Organization (IMO) has a number
of initiatives underway at this time to address the issue of non-indigenous
species transit and invasion and to address pollution of the ocean and fresh
water areas. The Ballast Water Management (BWM) convention was published in
2004 and has a target implementation date of 2009. MARPOL 73/78
(International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships) covers the
discharge of sewage at sea and came into force in 2003.
Two methods are proposed to mitigate the threat of species transfer: either
ballast water treatment (BWT) or ballast water exchange (BWE). BWE is
available only to those non-coastal vessels that can exchange ballast water
mid-ocean. This is a time-consuming and potentially hazardous exercise, as
it involves the vessel stopping or slowing considerably and exposes hull
structures to stress. A number of ship designers are now developing ‘no
stop’ BWE systems or vessel designs that eliminate the need for ballast
water altogether. For BWE regimes, a 95 percent volumetric exchange of
ballast water is required. This is
measured as three times the volume of the ballast tank exchange. From the
date of implementation (2009),
ships will be required to treat ballast water discharge to achieve less than
100 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL of intestinal enterococci and less
than 250CFU/100mL of Escherichia coli. Vibrio cholerae (O1,O139) should be
less than one CFU/100mL or less than one CFU/per one gram (wet weight) of
zooplankton samples. MARPOL 73/78 has been in force since 2003 and by 2006,
113 countries or
75 percent of active tonnage had signed the convention. In 2016, all vessels
will be required to treat their ballast water to comply with these microbial
In April 2008, the US House of Representatives approved regulations
requiring all saltwater ships entering US ports to treat their ballast water
by 2016. The bill (HR 2830) sets a more demanding disinfection standard than
the IMO protocol and requires that the number of organisms greater than 50
minimum dimension be reduced to fewer than 10 living organisms per cubic
meter of water in the discharged ballast water. Chemical or biocide-based
methods of disinfecting ballast water are unattractive from a number of
perspectives. The proximity of bulk chemicals poses handling and storage
risk to the ships
crew and often a de-chlorination process is required to ensure that no
active substance or residual is discharged. A number of innovative suppliers
are enhancing the production of hydroxyl radicals with the exposure of an
accelerant such as titanium dioxide to UV light. A dedicated joint group of
experts on the
scientific aspects of marine environmental protection (GESAMP)7 now has a
ballast water technical work group (Work Group 34) in place.
The focus of Work Group 34 is to determine what risk is posed by the
discharge of a variety of active substances. Hydroxyl species are a novel
addition to their usual list of chemical residuals to investigate. These
reactive species are very short lived and the ballast water has a high
How does UV work?
The ballast water is prepared for UV disinfection using a variety of filters
or cyclonic separators. The systems are usually skid mounted and automated;
the UV systems have automatic wiping and the filters automatic backwashing.
UV works by permanently damaging the DNA of all living organisms. The
damaged (or dimerized) DNA is no longer able to support normal cell function
and the organism is rendered non viable.
The sizing of the UV system is determined by: (a) flow rate; (b)
transmittance of the fluid to ultraviolet light and (c) the dose
requirement. The method is non- intrusive and does not alter the chemistry,
color or physical property of the ballast water.
Different organisms have demonstrated varied resistance to UV. A growing
number of organisms are being found to be highly resistant to chlorine and
many of these emerging pathogens are effectively disinfected using UV. UV
dose is expressed in mJ cm-2. Most of the leading UV manufacturers use CFD
(computational fluid dynamics) models to predict the performance of the UV
systems. Working in partnership with BWT system providers, they use a
variety of validation techniques to determine the actual UV system
performance in the BWT process. Preparation of ballast water is very
important, as color,
suspended solids and particulates would render the UV ineffective.
CFD modeling expertise and accuracy has advanced significantly in the last
five years. And leading UV system manufacturers such as Sollux, Trojan and
ATG use proprietary software models to integrate flow and radiation
The flow profile is produced from the chamber geometry, flow rate and
particular turbulence model selected.
The radiation profile is developed from inputs such as water quality, lamp
type (power, germicidal efficiency, spectral output, arc length) and the
transmittance and dimension of the quartz sleeve.
Proprietary CFD software simulates both flow and radiation profiles. Once a
3-D model of the chamber is built, it is populated with a grid or mesh that
comprises thousands of small cubes. Points of interest (such as at a bend)
or the quartz sleeve surface or around the wiper mechanism use a higher
resolution mesh, while other areas within the reactor use a coarse mesh.
Once the mesh is produced, hundreds of thousands of virtual particles are
‘fired’ through the chamber.
Each particle has several variables of interest associated with it and the
particles are ‘harvested’ after the reactor. Discrete phase modeling
produces delivered dose, head loss and other chamber specific parameters.
For system approval, on-shore and ship-based process validation is conducted
to ensure that the system is capable of performing as required. Fouling of
quartz sleeves can occur and prevent the UV light from penetrating into the
water. Iron is often present in ballast/bilge water, as the marine
environment is aggressive and materials coming into contact with it need to
be carefully selected. In addition to iron, ballast water can often contain
oils and lubricants and has a high oxygen demand. Effective wipers are
critical to the UV system performance. BWT systems are now also being
evaluated as part of the US Coast Guard STEP8 program in the US and are
undergoing IMO-type approval through the UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency
(MCA) in cooperation with Lloyd’s Register.
Much damage has been done by the inadvertent transit through ballast
discharge of a great many nuisance
species. However, it does seem that this area is finally getting the
attention it deserves.
UV systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as part of small system ballast
water treatment packages. Performance of the UV system depends critically on
the ability of the upstream filters and separators to adequately treat the
ballast water. Ratification and implementation of the IMO ballast water
convention will soon make it a criminal act to discharge untreated ballast
water. Neither the very international nature of the shipping business, nor
the intense competitive pressures caused by high
and rising fuel costs will be acceptable reasons for non-compliance. Nor
will the absence of a global regulation for such small systems be
Village officials are studying water plant plan
Poughkeepsie Journal, By Michael Woyton
WAPPINGERS FALLS, N.Y. - Village officials are considering a proposal to
repair and replace the water plant. The $3.75 million project would include
the drilling of an additional well, installation of an ultraviolet light
disinfection system and expanding existing water plant buildings.
"The goal is to be 100 percent dependent on our own source (for water) and
completely separated from the Poughkeepsie source," town engineer Jay Paggi
High iron and bacteria levels in the Wappinger Lake aquifer forced the state
Department of Health to shut down village wells in October 2006. The village
has been buying water from the City/Town of Poughkeepsie Joint Water Board
since that time under a five-year contract.
Mayor Matt Alexander said the cost of buying water from the joint board is
$350 per year per household. With 1,600 households, the cost is $560,000 or
$2.8 million over the course of the five-year contract.
Under the proposed time-table, the village would be capable of producing and
distributing its own water by 2011, which is when the contract with the
joint board expires.
Light instead of chlorine
Paggi said ultraviolet light was chosen as a primary disinfectant over
traditional chlorine. That is because for chlorine to be effective, the
water must be stored while the chemical disinfects it. A tank large enough
for that procedure would be costly to build and maintain, Paggi said.
He said the plant's electrical and control systems will be modernized,
allowing the operator to easily monitor water flow at distant locations.
Under the proposal, security for the system will be installed, along with a
backup power generator.
Only two of the now-existing four wells will continue to operate. A third
well will be drilled as a backup to ensure peak daily demand of 700 gallons
per minute can be met.
Village resident Bob Camenga was concerned if the well field would be able
to generate water for a long period of time.
"In the year of a drought, will we have enough?" he asked.
Paggi said the computer model used to calculate adequate flow assumed a
worst-case scenario of no rainfall for 700 days.
Alexander said the next steps were for the water commission to complete an
environmental impact study for the project.
Then the village trustees would pass a resolution authorizing the borrowing
of the money.
Naples water to get UV treatment
MPNNow.com, By Emily McFaul
Naples, N.Y. - Besides filtering public water, Naples’ new system will
use ultraviolet light as an extra step to prevent contamination.
The ultraviolet treatment — called UV for short — wasn’t part of the state
mandate that Naples filter the water from its Eelpot and Blodget reservoirs,
but the Village Board opted to add it now in the hope of saving money down
JP Schepp of Chatfield Engineers told the Village Board at a recent project
planning meeting that the cryptosporidium and giardia microorganisms that
can get into surface waters — and that the state is most concerned about —
are large enough to be caught in the bag-and-cartridge filters. Both cause
intestinal illness. The UV lights will treat the water that’s already run
through the filter.
“It’s kind of suspenders and a belt,” Schepp said. “But that’s not a bad
While a UV light inactivates bacteria and can disable harmful microorganisms
small enough to travel through a filter, it doesn’t replace the need for
filtration. The filters physically remove particulate matter before drinking
water goes through the UV treatment, explained Department of Health engineer
Sheryl Robbins, so that sediment or other contaminants don’t create
cloudiness that prevent the UV rays from reaching harmful microorganisms.
And, chlorinating the water after it goes through the filters and UV
treatment helps maintain the cleanliness of the water if bacteria should be
re-introduced through leaks in the water lines.
In electing to add the UV treatment, the village was anticipating a round of
tests that municipalities are required to start running on public water
supplies in October. Tests are scheduled on a regular basis over a period of
one to two years and, depending on the type of microorganisms to be checked
for, could have cost the village anywhere between $2,400 to $24,000. Test
failures would have meant Naples would have been required to add the UV
treatments to its systems.
Robbins said the village will now be excused from the additional testing
that begins this fall, since the Environmental Protection Agency considers
the multi-barrier approach that Naples plans to provide the maximum
treatment that can be given to water.
Installing the UV treatment as part of the filtration project has been
estimated to cost around $64,000. The board agreed that buying the equipment
now, before costs rise and additional money is spent on testing, would be a
There may be other long-term operating savings. Robbins and Tom Schwartz,
the village’s superintendent of public works, told the board that the UV
equipment means the amount of chlorination in the treated water can be
The UV equipment isn’t strictly a line item in the filtration budget, since
the board agreed on the need for the treatment only at the tail end of
planning. But Schepp told the board that with a contingency fund of $120,000
and some leeway in how much is spent on other parts of the project, the
inclusion of the UV equipment shouldn’t present a problem.
To stay on the compliance schedule agreed on with the state, designs for the
project are scheduled to be turned over to review agencies by Nov. 1.
Construction is slated to begin by July 1, 2009 and be completed in a year.
Heraeus will be showing its latest innovations of UV lamps for water
treatment at the forthcoming water events
The lamp specialist Heraeus Noblelight will show UV Lamps at IWA Vienna 2008 and
AQUATECH 2008 in Amsterdam
Heraeus Noblelight, the manufacturer of special light sources, will be
represented at the forthcoming events of the water industry – at IWA Vienna
2008 and AQUATECH 2008 in Amsterdam.
The IWA World Water - Congress and Exhibition – takes place in Vienna,
September 8-11, 2008. AQUATECH, the world’s leading trade exhibition on
process, drinking and waste water technology, will be in Amsterdam,
September 30 to October 3, 2008.
Heraeus Noblelight will be showing UV lamps which are used for drinking
water disinfection in waterworks, for wastewater treatment in sewage
treatment plants and for the treatment of industrial process water. These
include low pressure UVC lamps, compact, high power medium pressure UV lamps
and Longlife amalgam lamps. An innovative and powerful UV Amalgam Lamp will
be launched at AQUATECH in Amsterdam.
In addition to the conventional processes for cleaning water – such as the
use of chemicals like chlorine and ozone or filtration systems – the
importance of ultraviolet light as a reliable, environmentally friendly and
economically viable alternative is ever increasing.
Since its development of UV medium pressure technology in 1904, Heraeus
Noblelight can look back to 100 years of experience in the development,
production and application of UV lamps. Through innovations such as Longlife
technology, Heraeus continues to set milestones in the field of UV lamps.
Heraeus Noblelight is an original equipment supplier and the partner of
choice for many systems builders involved in the disinfection of water, air
and surfaces, as well as for manufacturers of systems for photo-chemistry
Battling the Parasite in Your Local Pool
By ANNA PRIOR, The Wall Street Journal
Rising infections from a chlorine-resistant parasite called Cryptosporidium
are forcing pools and water parks across the country to take new measures -
from ultraviolet-light water treatments to tighter swimming restrictions -
to keep their water clean.
The parasite - commonly called crypto - is found in human and animal feces
and is easily transmitted through water. When ingested, crypto can cause an
illness of up to two weeks, with symptoms that include long bouts of
diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches and low-grade
Earlier this summer, city officials in Phoenix closed and disinfected the
city's 29 pools for a week after more than 100 people complained of illness
and a pool was found to have the parasite. A series of outbreaks last summer
in Utah sickened nearly 2,000 people. And an outbreak at a spray park in
Seneca Lake State Park in New York in 2005 caused more than 4,000 people to
seek medical help.
Crypto outbreaks have been increasing over the past two decades, according
to Michael Beach, associate director for healthy water at the National
Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases. The past few years
have seen a surge, with outbreaks at pools, spray parks - which feature
fountains and other spraying devices - and water parks jumping to around 25
in 2007 from five in 2003. Overall, outbreaks of waterborne gastrointestinal
disease rose to 30 in 2007 from seven in 2003.
In 1993, crypto-infected drinking water in Milwaukee sickened more than
400,000 people and is thought to have killed more than 100. Still, many
people aren't aware that the illness can be contracted at swimming pools, as
well as ponds and other bodies of water. (Ocean-related outbreaks are very
rare.) The crypto parasite has a thick outer shell, so it can survive for
more than 10 days in a pool at standard chlorination levels.
Last summer, when Jill Everett's 8-year-old son, Nathan, woke up one night
with wrenching stomach cramps and diarrhea, she never thought that his
symptoms were related to the swimming lessons he'd been taking at the local
pool. "I thought it was the stomach flu," says Ms. Everett, a 43-year-old
computer programmer in Bountiful, Utah.
But three days later, Nathan was still sick, so Ms. Everett took him to the
doctor, where she learned he had crypto. "I had never even heard of it," she
Now, many water parks are installing ultraviolet systems, which kill
parasites including crypto when water passes through the systems' UV light.
Seven Peaks Water Park, in Provo, Utah, invested about $250,000 in UV
systems, said the park's maintenance engineer, Ken Kroeber. Park officials
were concerned after some people who became ill in last year's outbreak said
they had swum there, though the water wasn't ever tested for the parasite,
In Utah, state public-health officials want anyone who has had diarrhea to
stay away from pools - including water parks and hotel and apartment pools -
for two weeks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warn people
who have had the illness to stay out of pools for at least two weeks after
they get better.
The CDC is working with industry representatives and public-health officials
to put together the Model Aquatic Health Code - a set of CDC-endorsed
water-safety guidelines that state and local agencies will enforce. To
address current concerns about crypto, a section on dealing with bodily
fluids is expected to be posted on the CDC's Web site for public comment
within several weeks.
Since crypto isn't affected by chlorine (except at levels unsafe for
humans), combating the parasite will require not only pool officials but
also swimmers to shift their thinking. "It's a change in understanding on
the part of the people that swim," says Jonathan Yoder, who coordinates the
CDC's water-borne-disease outbreak surveillance system. "It's important for
them to understand they can transmit illness when they swim when they're
ill. The water is not sterile."
Current safety rules may not always protect swimmers. In Utah, new state
rules require kids who still use diapers to wear swim diapers and waterproof
pants in pools. But swim diapers won't necessarily prevent the spread of
crypto. "No product either durable or disposable is designed to contain
bowel movements while under water for a long time," says Lance Latham, a
spokesman for Kimberly-Clark, which makes Huggies Little Swimmers diapers.
"Little Swimmers are not intended to contain diarrhea."
Still, swimmers can take steps to stay safe. While chlorine doesn't affect
crypto at normal levels, it does kill other illness-causing agents, such as
E. coli, giardia and hepatitis A. Underchlorination of pools can allow such
diseases to spread. To test unfamiliar waters, people can purchase
chlorination-testing strips at most hardware stores.
After a quick dip in the water, the strips take about 15 to 30 seconds to
work. Colors on the strips indicate whether levels of "free chlorine, ph and
total alkalinity" are safe in the pool. If the levels are not where they
should be, swimmers can tell a pool manager or call the local health
department, says the CDC's Dr. Beach.
Another way to battle the threat of a crypto outbreak is for more pools to
require swimmers to shower before entering the pool. A public pool is "a
public bath tub," Dr. Beach says. "We need to keep things sanitary."
UV for Wisconsin village groundwater
Water Tech Online
PRAIRIE DU SAC, WI — Prairie Du Sac, which uses groundwater to supply its
drinking water, now relies solely on ultraviolet (UV) light for
disinfection, according to a July 17 article in The Sauk Prairie Eagle.
According to the article, this system is one of the first of its kind
nationwide to disinfect with UV. Mark Borchardt, a research scientist at the
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation based in Marshfield, WI, said in the
article, “They might be only the third municipality in the nation to do this
for a groundwater system.”
Borchardt chose Prairie du Sac as one of 14 municipalities in Wisconsin for
a federally funded study to determine the link between municipal groundwater
and gastrointestinal illnesses in children, the article said. None of the
municipalities chosen for the study, including Prairie du Sac, disinfected
its drinking water, the article said.
Municipalities using groundwater systems that are not affected by surface
water, such as Prairie du Sac, are not required by law to disinfect their
water supplies. Borchardt said his study could change that.
During Borchardt's two-year study, selected families in the 14 communities
maintained weekly health logs and Borchardt collected regular water samples
from their homes.
The water remained untreated for one year of the study and for one year the
water supply was disinfected by passing through concentrated UV light.
Borchardt will release his full findings for all 14 communities later this
year in a peer-reviewed journal.
He informally told the village that his findings showed disinfecting the
water had a positive impact on community health, which Wildman said prompted
the village to purchase the UV light reactors used in the study.
CDC recommends UV or ozone disinfection for pools
Water Tech Online
ATLANTA — Findings of a new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
study about the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other parasites in
swimming pool filter backwash suggest that there is a need for continued
emphasis on improving swimming pool operation and maintenance, such as
preventive hyperchlorination or routine flocculation, combined with
supplementary inline disinfection systems such as ultraviolet light (UV) or
The study, “Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in
swimming pools, Atlanta, Georgia,” was published in the June 2008 issue of
the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.
UV and ozone are known to inactivate Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.,
both gastrointestinal parasites spread through the fecal-oral route,
according to the study’s authors, Joan M. Shields, et al.
According to the study’s abstract, “Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia
intestinalis have been found in swimming pool filter backwash during
outbreaks. To determine baseline prevalence, we sampled pools not associated
with outbreaks and found that of 160 sampled pools, 13 (8.1 percent) were
positive for 1 or both parasites; 10 (6.2 percent) for Giardia sp.; 2 (1.2
percent) for Cryptosporidium spp.;, and 1 (0.6 percent) for both.”
While the authors write that the study is “a snapshot of contamination at
the end of the swim season,” they conclude that “the finding of swimming
pool filter contamination by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. is key,”
reinforcing the need for improved pool operation and maintenance. UV and
ozone are both listed as supplementary inline disinfection systems that
should be considered.
The authors also write that the general public, especially immunocompromised
persons, need to understand recreational water–associated illness
transmission and adopt healthy swimming habits that are needed to reduce the
risk for pathogen transmission.
UV light helps to ensure safe bathing during the summer months
• Ultraviolet light kills bacteria in wastewater without the need for
chemicals and allows safe bathing in the Isar.
• Reliable and environmentally friendly method
• Used in the project “Clean Isar” in a large number of clarification plants
In addition to the conventional processes for cleaning water – such as the
use of chemicals like chlorine and ozone or filtration systems – the
importance of ultraviolet light as a reliable, environmentally friendly and
economically viable alternative is ever increasing.
Communal wastewater, after being cleaned in clarification plants, is
reintroduced into the water cycle, into rivers, lakes and coastal waters.
Special treatment is necessary if, at subsequent points, drinking water is
extracted or wastewater is fed back to bathing waters. If the wastewater has
a high germ count then the hygienic conditions for bathing become doubtful
as there are significant dangers of infection for humans.
Project “Clean Isar” – A Decision for UV
The city of Munich and the State of Bavaria started a project to improve the
hygienic water quality of the Isar river, to ensure safe bathing during the
summer months. One part of the Isar is diverted into the Isar canal and used
for energy generation. As a result, the remaining Isar between the cities of
Bad Toelz and Freising carries very little water. By introducing cleaned
wastewater from the clarification plants in this area the degree of
contamination was high, in spite of sufficient treatment, and the water was
heavy with pathogens.
The Europe-wide, unique “Clean Isar” project included the decision to use UV
wastewater disinfection as the final cleaning stage in the sewage treatment
plants which fed the wastewater back into the river. The aim was to
significantly reduce the germ count of the waste waters and so improve the
hygienic water quality of the Isar in the bathing season, while meeting the
severe EU bathing water regulations. In 2000, the Bavarian State showed
evidence from the pilot scheme for wastewater disinfection in Bad Toelz that
bathing water quality could be achieved in the Isar. Hygienic considerations
are decisive for the bathing water quality. Contamination of the water, for
example by pathogens, can cause illnesses in the bathers. Bacteria and
viruses play an important role, particularly, fecal germs, streptococci,
salmonella and enteric viruses.
Ultraviolet light inactivates bacteria in wastewater without the addition of
chemicals. The treatment of water with UV radiation is a very effective
physical process for reliably disinfecting water and breaking down
pollutants. The energy-rich radiation, at wavelengths of around 254
nanometers is absorbed by the DNA and destroys its structure. As a result,
the UV rays, in a matter of seconds, destroy the cells of the pathogens in
the water, such as bacteria, micro-organisms, viruses, fungi or parasites.
In addition, chlorine-resistant parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidia
can be killed by UV light. Pathogens cannot develop any resistance to UV
light. An important benefit is that this cleaning process takes place
completely without chemicals and hence there are no chemical residuals.
UV light is versatile in its application – it can be used to treat water,
air and surfaces. Drinking water treatment in waterworks, wastewater
treatment in sewage treatment plants or process water treatment in industry
(typically, the recycling and re-use of process water) are the interesting
applications of UV in the water industry.
Disinfection with ultraviolet light becomes more and more accepted
The physical method of disinfection with UVC light is a reliable and
economical technique, which is often used for the disinfection of water. For
example, the city of New York has chosen this technology for drinking water
disinfection for new waterworks which are planned for the Catskill/Delaware
catchment area about 160 kilometer north of New York city. This will be the
largest UV disinfection plant for drinking water in the world. From 2010,
the new waterworks will treat up to 2.2 billion gallons (8.3 million cubic
meters) of water per day for more than nine million people in New York city
and its environs.
In recent years, the acceptance of UV disinfection in commercial
applications has continued to grow. UV disinfection has been successfully
used for wastewater treatment in the USA for decades and is now becoming
increasingly specified in Europe, as in the Isar project.
The town of Freising has also setteled for wastewater disinfection through
UV radiation to provide hygienic wastewater and clean water in the Isar. The
sewage treatment plant in Freising treats around 5 million m³ of wastewater
(per day) from the town of Freising, its commercial companies (Dairy,
breweries) and eight neighboring townships. Within the scope of the “Clean
Isar” project, the Freising plant was completely modernized and enlarged.
Today the clarification plant is designed for an 110,000 inhabitant value.
In addition, the water rights application meets stricter limits and the
escapage loss has been drastically reduced. The plant expansion includes a
new biological treatment plant, settling tanks, a fish pond, new CHP plants
and a UV disinfection plant.
Freising decided upon a plant from the Canadian manufacturer TROJAN
technologies. This was installed in September 2005 and began operation in
the summer of 2006. An important plus point was the sophisticated wiper
technology of the TrojanUV3000Plus system, which continuously removes any
dirt or deposits from the quartz safety tubes. This possible coating, which
is often ferrous, leads to a reduction in the UV intensity in the water.
The UV plant in Freising is fitted with 196 UV lamps, each of 250 Watt
output. The UV lamps are contained in UV-transparent Quartz glass tubes,
which are tightly sealed. Two open channels work with two corresponding
banks, which are each fitted with six modules. The plant is self-regulated
according to the wastewater throughput. Depending on the throughput and the
water transmission, one channel is operated with the necessary number of
modules. The lamp power can be controlled between 60% and 100% intensity. An
SPS controller automatically regulated the operating mode. A UV sensor
continually monitors the UV lamp intensity and an on-line measurement of
water transmission matches the power to the demand.
The Freising plant is designed for a maximum of 652 liters per second (2350
m³/hour). Maximum input is 611 liters per second. This ensures that the
capacity of the UV plant is sufficient to handle the maximum expected
wastewater input. The plant delivers a UV dose of 306J/m², which ensure
certain UV disinfection.
An external, independent laboratory takes monthly samples and tests the
water quality. The samples are taken before and after the UV plant and look
out for faecal germs and streptococci. The regional authority also monitors
the wastewater quality. This takes the form of unannounced, monthly sampling
to check bathing water quality.
Willi Frankl, manager of the Freising sewage works says of his experiences,
“The plant stands or falls on the UV lamps. The operating life of the lamps
is a decisive factor. The later I have to change over lamps, the more
economical the UV plant.”
The energy efficiency of the UV disinfection plants in communal
clarification plants can be improved by using particularly efficient UV
lamps. The challenge for today’s UV lamps is to significantly increase their
efficiency and operating life.
Different Lamp Technologies for Water Treatment
The disinfection of water can involve the use of compact medium pressure UV
lamps, low pressure UV lamps and high power amalgam lamps.
Medium pressure lamps give a broad band spectrum over the complete range
from 200 to 400 nanometers. Their high radiation flux allows very good
disinfection from compact units. Similarly, with high throughput, it is
possible to design very compact disinfection systems. For example, these
lamps are used on board ships where space is very limited to disinfect
ballast water. Typical lamp operating life is 1500 to 5000 hours.
Low pressure lamps emit radiation at a wavelength of 254 nanometers.
Classical UV low pressure lamps offer exceptional efficiency: up to 40% of
the electrical power is converted into UV radiation for disinfection.
However, the power density is limited and a large number of lamps is often
required. When synthetic quartz glass is used as the lamp material,
additional UV radiation at 185 nanometers is emitted and this can be used
for oxidation processes. The first lamp change is normally after 8000 hours.
After this the lamps exhibit a drop-off in UV intensity of up to 50 percent.
However, there are significantly longer life lamps. For example, the
specialist light source manufacturer, Heraeus Noblelight, has developed new
high power, amalgam lamps, which operate for up to 16,000 hours with
virtually constant UV output and so provide significantly more power than
conventional standard low pressure lamps, with their usual operating life of
8000 hours. A unique longlife coating doubles the life of amalgam lamps.
This new technology not only improves the useful life of the lamps but also
ensure a virtually constant UV output over the length of this working life.
In addition, with the new coating, high power amalgam lamps can eliminate
the transmission loss of quartz glass which is associated with conventional
lamps, so that a virtually constant disinfection action is achieved over the
complete operating life. With conventional UV lamps, mercury diffuses into
the quartz, so that such lamps deliver only 50% of the original UV power
after 8000 hours. The new technology allows up to 16000 hours of operation
at virtually constant UV output and consequently significantly more power
overall than conventional lamps.
In comparison with previous lamp technology, UV amalgam lamps offer the best
combination of efficiency and operating life. Thanks to the higher UV output
and the long operating life, system builders now need fewer lamps in any new
disinfection plants they design. As a result there is significant potential
for saving in the number of lamps, in system components, in energy demands
and in maintenance and service costs. End users, such as waterworks and
clarification plants, profit from the long operating life. The time between
lamp changes is virtually doubled while the operating time provides the
lamps with more UV power than conventional low pressure lamps.
Outlook – New areas of application for UV radiation
The increasing environmental pollution caused by medications in wastewater
is becoming more of a problem. In order to destroy the very complex
pharmaceuticals such as steroids and antibiotics, it is sensible and
effective to use a combination of UV radiation and powerful oxidation
substances such as hydrogen peroxide. UV radiation at a wavelength of 185
nanometers makes even higher energies available and allows oxidization
processes, which can break down health-threatening chemicals in water.
Ray of Light for Agriculture: UV Lamps Eliminate The Use of Pesticides
New Application for UV Lamps in Agriculture
- Swiss Company Develops PhytO3-machines with UV lamps from Heraeus
- Eliminates Pesticides
- Patented Method
UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight are used to treat water, air and work
surfaces. Often, these specialist light sources find application in the
treatment of drinking water or in the disinfection of packaging materials in
the foodstuffs industry.
The destruction of micro-organisms with UV light is now also taking place in
the agricultural sector. The Swiss company SwissFood Tech Management AG,
following its field tests carri9ed out in 2006, is now using UV lamps from
Heraeus Noblelight in its PhytO3 machine, which uses the combination of
ozonised water and UV light for the treatment of agricultural fields in
order to replace the use of pesticides and insecticides.
PhytO3 Method With UV Light Replaces Pesticides.
The PhytO3 process replaces the use of pesticides by using the combination
of ozonised water and UV light. Extensive field research has validated the
effectiveness of this process.
In operation, a structure suspended at the end of a tractor is equipped with
Heraeus lamps. Ozone is generated by silent electrical discharge in a
separate unit, which is mounted on the forks at the front of the tractor,
and is dissolved in water. The PhytO3 method combines two effects: the
plants are sprayed with ozonised water and irradiated with UVC light.
Biological pests often live on plant surfaces. Small animals, such as
beetles, are simply sprayed with water on the ground but are not destroyed.
Micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria and moulds on the plants are
targeted and destroyed in a controlled manner by UVC radiation at a
wavelength of 254nm. The energy rich UVC radiation neutralises
micro-organisms, as it damages the genetic make-up. In addition, the UV
radiation activates the ozone enriching the water on the plant surface and
generates excited oxygen. This destroys the cell walls of the
By the removal of the pests, the risk of plant damage or damage to the field
is significantly reduced. This pesticide technique, employing UV lamps, is
environmentally-friendly and there is no need for chemicals. There are no
biological or chemical residuals on the plant surfaces, in the soil or in
the environment. The ozone will usually decay within a maximum of 15
minutes, i.e, some time after the spraying takes place the ozone
concentration falls to zero.
UV-Amalgam Lamps from Heraeus Noblelight
The amalgam lamps used in the PhytO3 method generate UV radiation at a
wavelength of 254 Nanometers.
Longlife Amalgam lamps, as the name implies, are high power, low pressure
lamps with extremely long operating lives. They can achieve up to ten times
the UV power density of classical mercury low pressure lamps and are
insensitive to temperature fluctuations. Heraeus Amalgam lamps are fitted
with a unique coating, which prevents the transmission loses of quartz glass
associated with conventional UV lamps. The result is a virtually constant
disinfection sanction throughout the lamp’s life.
Ultraviolet light plan to kill bug
ANGLIAN Water will use ultraviolet light to kill parasites currently
contaminating tap water in the Daventry area. The company is installing
three units at the Pitsford Water Treatment Works which will shine
ultraviolet rays into the water, rendering the cryptosporidium parasite
However, it could still be a matter of a couple of weeks before the supply
is safe to drink and Anglian Water is advising customers to continue boiling
tap water until further notice.
A spokesman for Anglian Water said: "We have brought in three ultraviolet
units and this is a well known technology for rendering cryptosporidium
harmless." "We have to go through a very thorough testing of the water to
make sure it is back to up to the excellent quality of tap water.
"We have numerous resources in terms of man hours in terms of installing the
UV light equipment and finding out the cause. The investigations into how
the parasite got into the water is still on-going.
"We would like to apologise to customers for any inconvenience caused by
these problems and we hope they feel reassured that we are doing everything
we can to return the tap water to the high standards we had previously."
Anglian Water has also confirmed provisional plans to set up an information
service at Daventry District Council's offices, but nothing formal has yet
ITT completes EPA validation for world’s most efficient UV drinking water
ATLANTA - (BUSINESS WIRE) - ITT Corporation (NYSE: ITT), a leading provider
of systems for treating and transporting water and wastewater, announced
today that it has completed a new validation for ITT’s WEDECO K Series
Ultraviolet (UV) Reactor according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
standards. The WEDECO K Series UV reactor is the most efficient large scale
drinking water system using UV disinfection on the world market.
UV disinfection of drinking water is a safe and reliable way to protect
public health from waterborne diseases. Since UV light has the ability to
sterilize pathogenic microorganisms within seconds, it has been widely
implemented in many water treatment facilities throughout the world. The
WEDECO K Series UV Reactor offers significant cost savings for large scale
drinking water UV projects. The WEDECO UV systems are using low pressure,
high-output UV lamps, so the operating costs are typically less than half of
the leading medium pressure lamp systems available.
The WEDECO K Series UV reactor underwent all possible design scenarios
during the validation, with flow rates up to 40 million gallons per day. In
addition to the upcoming drinking water projects, more than 100 installed K
Series vessels in North America can now be certified according to the latest
... Included in New ASHRAE Handbook
ASHRAE Press Room
ATLANTA – New chapters related to ultraviolet lamp systems and combustion
turbine inlet cooling are featured in ASHRAE’s new 2008 Handbook volume.
HVAC Systems and Equipment discusses systems and the equipment that comprise
them, including features and differences. It is designed to help system
designers and building operators select and use equipment. It contains 48
The chapter on ultraviolet lamp systems addresses the use of such systems to
improve indoor air quality. “Use of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation has
increased as concerns about the transmission via ductwork of pathogenic
organisms, such as tuberculosis and even bioterrorism agents, have escalated
among designers,” Walter Grondzik, chair of the subcommittee that
coordinated publishing of the 2008 volume, said.
School Board Approves UV Sanitation System
Christina Rowland, Southlake Times
The Carroll ISD Board of Trustees is hoping an investment of almost $100,000
will help those suffering with asthma to swim a bit easier.
The school board approved the purchase Monday of a $92,000 UV sanitation
system that would work in conjunction with two other sanitation systems
already in use to help decrease the amount of chemicals put into the pool.
“It (the UV system) kills germs in the pool by using a high ultraviolet
light. It oxidizes chloramines in the water and kills them,” Assistant
Superintendent for Administrative Services Dr. Derek Citty said, “as they
pass through the light it changes them to a chemical that is not harmful to
The system will cut down on the chemicals and chlorine that are currently
put in the pool to sanitize it, and the daunting smell that one gets when
they step into a natatorium should be gone.
The systems will be installed by Sunbelt Pools of Dallas and will cost
roughly $92,000. The system also has four light bulbs that have to be
replaced roughly once a year to keep it running effectively. The cost of
each one of those bulbs is $1,000. “The cost will be offset by the amount we
save on chlorine,” Citty said. “It will be paid for out of fund balance.”
Outside of school groups, user fees are charged. The board does not
anticipate any of these fees going up as a result of the new system.
“The water in that pool never sits still,” Citty said. “We have diving
programs, water polo, senior activities and that pool is used by hundreds of
Other cities in the area have installed the system; such as the Oak Point
natatorium in Plano, The City of Allen Natatorium, Denton Natatorium, SMU
Perkins Natatorium and the city of Frisco.
“We should have done this eight years ago but the technology wasn’t there,”
Recreation Complex Supervisor for Oak Point Pool K’Ann Parham said. “It is
an expensive system up front but it is well worth the cost.”
Parham explained that it wasn’t her asthmatic kids that were complaining, it
was her swim and dive teams and now that the system has been installed
everything is much better. Parham also confirmed that her pool has saved
money on chemicals because they do not have to put as many in now that they
have the new sanitation system. They purchased their system last fall.
“Our board is kid-centered,” Citty said. “They view this as something that
can benefit hundreds of kids. The introduction of the system will help kids
with asthma and destroy chloramines.”
The system is thought to last for a long time because it is made out of
stainless steel and shouldn’t rust. According to Citty the system also has
no moving parts. The system is set to be installed in late August. The pool
will close from Aug. 2 to 18 to install the system and perform routine
matenience needed for the pool.
Moscow Sewage Water to Be Purified With UV
Ultraviolet (UV) sewage water purification technology will be introduced at
all Moscow water purification stations by 2014, the Moscow Water Supply
Service (Mosvodokanal) told Interfax on Tuesday.
"Back in 2007, one of the largest UV-decontamination plants in the world
processing 1 million cubic meters of water in 24 hours was brought into
action at the Lubertsy purification plant," he said.
"This technology reduced the station's load on purifying sewage from
nitrogen and phosphorus by 5,600 tonnes, or 14%, in 2007 and by 7,510 tonnes,
or 12%, in all the monitored months," he said.
The employment of this technology at Moscow purification stations will help
significantly improve the quality of water in the Moscow River both within
the city boundaries and in its lower reaches and will also have a positive
effect on the environment in the regions adjacent to the Volga and Oka river
basins, he said.
Goodman Pool gets $10,000 for UV purification
The Capital Times, Madison, WI
The Madison City Council voted Tuesday night to give the Parks Division an
additional $10,000 for the installation of an ultraviolet water purification
system at the Goodman Pool.
Pool Manager Bonnie Griswold said the UV water treatment system is needed in
addition to chlorine as a safeguard to keep the water clean.
Nationally, the 2007 swim season saw a 24 percent hike in Cryptosporidium
outbreaks, including one in the Salt Lake City area that led to children
under 5 being banned from city pools, Griswold told the council.
Germs causing recreational water illnesses are killed by chlorine, but
chlorine is a slow acting disinfectant, she said.
The Goodman pool closed 16 times last year due to fecal accidents. It takes
about 45 minutes to inactivate E. coli, the hepatitis A virus, and the
giardia parasite, Griswold said.
In other cases it takes time to kill the germs and some germs like
Cryptosporidium can live in a pool for days, she said.
"It would be difficult for our facility to survive that," Griswold told the
council. It would interrupt the pool's programming and erode the public's
confidence, she said.
UV light, which is used in other Madison pools, acts instantly and provides
a non-chemical, environmentally friendly treatment option to address both
chlorine resistant pathogens and chloramines -- which are irritating to a
person's eyes and skin.
The new technology is highly effective and reliable, Griswold said.
State legislation is pending that requires UV water purification and
filtering systems in all future public pools.
As more people use the Goodman pool, there are going to be more outbreaks,
It's a matter of educating the public that children shouldn't be swimming
when they are ill, and that young children should wear waterproof diapers or
"Little Swimmers" when they go swimming, she said.
Aqua New Jersey Receives Award for UV Treatment Plant from Water Resources
HAMILTON, N.J.-(BUSINESS WIRE)
$2.2 Million Facility Is a First Using UV Disinfection in New Jersey
Aqua New Jersey, Inc. (Aqua) received the Business & Industry Award from the
Water Resources Association of the Delaware River Basin’s (WRA) at its 26th
Annual Recognition Dinner held last night in Philadelphia.
Aqua received the award for the installation of advanced ultraviolet (UV)
water treatment in New Jersey.
The state-of-the-art UV treatment facility, located in Lopatcong Township,
uses UV light treatment to enhance water quality for approximately 10,600
Aqua in Phillipsburg and Lopatcong, Pohatcong and Greenwich townships. Aqua
was the first utility to use UV in this particular type of application and
on this scale.
Aqua New Jersey President William Davis accepted the award on behalf of the
company. “We are extremely proud to have been selected this prestigious
award from such an important organization in our industry and our region,”
said Davis. “These treatment facilities demonstrate how creative thinking
coupled with technology can lead to cost-efficient solutions that serve
public health and protect the environment.”
If Aqua had proceeded to build a traditional filtration plant, the cost
could have been as much as $12 million. Davis said the company was able to
effect the more affordable solution thanks to the New Jersey Department of
Environmental Protection acceptance of the company’s proposed solution. The
UV treatment facility has a capacity of 10.5 million gallons per day. Inside
the plant, untreated water is disinfected with chlorine and then flows
through a chamber where UV lights “saturate” the water. This “one-two punch”
provides two distinct disinfection mechanisms, which effectively eliminate
micro-organisms from what is already a very clean water source from wells
along the Delaware River.
Aqua provides water and wastewater services to 150,000 residents across
eight counties in New Jersey. It is a subsidiary of Aqua America, Inc., a
large U.S.-based publicly-traded water company, serving approximately three
million residents in 13 states.
UV sanitizing aids Fresh & Easy’s green efforts
Fresh & Easy Neighborhood Markets is using a unique sanitization method for
its reusable shipping and display packaging.
The El Segundo, California-based division of British retailer Tesco uses an
ultraviolet sanitizing machine as a part of a companywide mission to reduce
its environmental burden.
“This eliminates the need for harsh chemical cleaners and such,” said
spokesman Brendan Wonnacott.
Wonnacott said the method, which as been used in the pharmaceutical
industry, works just as well as typical chemical cleaning methods.
Once the packaging is used at the store level, it is transported back to
Fresh & Easy’s distribution center, where it is sent through the machine to
be sanitized and disinfected.
Fresh & Easy has made a commitment to reuse or recycle all of its packaging
and display materials.
Through efforts like UV sanitization, Fresh & Easy avoided releasing more
than 111,000 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from trucks
transporting waste to landfills, according to the company. Fresh & Easy says
it has reused or recycled 192.5 tons of display packaging since the stores
started opening in November.
UV brings disinfection benefits to the Food and Drink Industry
Process & Control Today
Despite the huge advances in cleanliness and disinfection techniques, the
ongoing battle against potentially dangerous micro-organisms and microbial
contamination in food continues. Part of the problem has been the ability of
microbial organisms to adapt and survive traditional chemical treatments and
continue to thrive, endangering the health of consumers. However
developments in UV technology offer a safe, non-invasive solution.
Ultraviolet light is a natural component of sunlight. However, using higher
energy wavelengths of UV light has the unique ability of destroying all
dangerous micro-organisms. Unlike chemical disinfectants, which rely on
chemical oxidation to disrupt the life functions of micro-organisms, UV is
simply light energy that disrupts the DNA of harmful organisms. By disabling
their DNA the life functions of these organisms are terminated, rendering
them harmless. Because no chemicals are involved, consumers don’t have to
worry about consuming potentially harmful chemicals or their by-products.
The food market is an increasingly regulated and safety-conscious one,
driven by the growing demand for even higher quality standards. Food
producing and packaging industries are now enjoying the unique benefits of
UV technology. It kills all known spoilage micro-organisms, including
bacteria, viruses, yeasts, protozoa and moulds (and their spores). It is a
low maintenance, environmentally friendly technology and as well as not
introducing toxins or residues into the process, it does not alter the
chemical composition, taste, odour or Ph of the water or liquid being
Whilst being designed to meet the stringent sanitary requirements of the
food industry, today’s UV disinfection systems can usually be easily
integrated in-line into process systems with little disruption to plant
operations. Also, the maintenance requirements are minimal – modern Amalgam
UV lamps only need replacing once a year.
Malcolm Snowball, Technical Director of GB Environmental, an eminent
manufacturer of advanced UV treatment, believes that UV technology holds the
key to continued safe and effective disinfection: “Put simply, microbial
organisms cannot survive UV treatment. Rather than simply killing
micro-organisms UV actually inactivates them by disrupting their DNA, so
they are unable to either metabolise or reproduce. UV is also very simple to
apply to surfaces of products. There is no fear of chemical contamination
and there are no negative after-effects from the process.”
Although the basic principal of UV sterilisation has been recognised for
over a century, it is the spectrum of applications and advances in
technology that are bringing it to the forefront today. “Advances in UV lamp
technology have been vital in the development of the sector,” says Malcolm.
“In the past energy consumption of the lamps has been an issue with some
providers. However, a lot of effort has been made to address these issues
and we at GB Environmental use reduced energy Amalgam UV lamps, which are
three-times more efficient than medium pressure lamps and cut down the
running costs significantly.
“Our products also focus heavily on making servicing and maintenance of UV
equipment easier. With water cleansing, for instance, proteins within the
water build up on the UV lamp and need to be removed. The only way to do
this is to break the bond between the protein and the lamp sleeve. Our
Safeguard™ UV water treatment product uses eight scrapers with Titanium
Dioxide cleaning heads which are actually activated by the UV light and
become an oxidizer, removing the proteins. The process can be periodically
operated by users, is totally safe, non-toxic to humans and can even be used
in hard water areas.”
Surface disinfection is another area where UV comes into its own. Simple UV
tunnels can be installed on existing process lines to disinfect meat,
poultry or eggs prior to packaging, or before they are transferred to High
Care areas. Surface disinfection systems are also ideal for sterilizing food
handling utensils, conveyor belts and packaging materials.
For food processors seeking to improve the quality of their product, UV is
an economic, realistic option for many applications. The introduction of UV
tunnels has also allowed a broad range of food manufacturers, from bakeries
to meat processors, to give food handling a high level of disinfection. It
is already a well established method of disinfecting drinking water
throughout the world, and is also widely used for high purity uses such as
pharmaceutical processing and semiconductor manufacturing, where water of
the highest quality is essential. UV is also an environmentally friendly
technology that allows processors to reuse wastewater, minimizing
GB Environmental divisional reorganisation to target the Food and Drink
Process & Control Today
GB Environmental, one of the world’s key manufacturers of advanced
ultraviolet (UV) treatment equipment, has announced a divisional
reorganisation of the company to focus on the Food and Drink industry. The
reorganisation follows on from the company’s recent acquisition of Kaiku
Ltd, which now joins the group as Kaiku Process Solutions to help it focus
on this key market sector.
Commenting on the announcement, Sales and Marketing Director Ralph Coney,
says: “It makes sense to manage our business in three divisions to tackle
the specialist needs of different sectors. Kaiku’s expertise in product
monitoring for the Food and Drink Sector perfectly compliments our UV
capabilities providing the abilty to offer total solutions to this industry.
Our GB Municipal division will cater for Municipal and Industrial water
users. The UV Care division will continue to specialise within Healthcare,
the Built Environment and Leisure.”
The Kaiku Process Solutions division, within GB Environmental, is the result
of the company reorganisation and the acquisition of Kaiku Ltd. This means
that GB Environmental can now offer Kaiku’s unique patented i-Pipe, an
on-line fluid monitoring system, which detects changes in the chemical
formulation without the need for invasive probes or manual sampling. This
gives benefits such as greater control of ingredients and throughput,
minimal downtime in the event of problems, elimination of manual errors and
also minimises batch waste and prevents recalls.
The i-Pipe advanced monitoring equipment compliments GB Environmental’s
existing range of cutting-edge UV treatment solutions for the Food and Drink
industry. UV disinfection can be used in many aspects of food and drink
production, from the supply water to finished products, ensuring at every
stage that microbial contamination by bacteria, viruses, yeast and moulds is
kept to an absolute minimum.
GB Environmental has an impressive portfolio of products that allows the
company to offer UV solutions for liquids, solids, air and water. Combined
with the process monitoring capability, the GB Environmental group now
offers a complete solution to food and beverage processors.
UV system to fight county pool germs
Deseret Morning News
WEST JORDAN - Salt Lake County-operated swimming pools are being equipped
with ultraviolet light systems to help battle the parasite cryptosporidium
and other bacteria that hang out in pools.
But health officials warn that technology never will replace hygiene when it
comes to contamination illnesses.
Health officials and county Mayor Peter Corroon on Thursday showed off the
first of the new UV light systems at the Gene Fullmer Recreation Center,
8015 S. 2200 West. All 24 Salt Lake County Parks and Recreation pools (some
of the 18 county facilities have more than one) will have the UV systems, at
a total cost of close to $1 million.
An outbreak of cryptosporidium along the Wasatch Front last year led to
temporary barring of very young swimmers from public pools and heightened
the rules on cleaning pools. The parasite, which lives in intestines, can be
spread by poor hygiene and contact with contaminated water. The resulting
gastrointestinal illness can be quite severe and last a week or two. More
than 1,900 cases were lab-confirmed last year along the Wasatch Front; 30 is
UV has proven highly effective against bacteria and parasites, but it's not
a cure, and it's not the only tool being used to keep the water safe to swim
in, says Teresa Gray, bureau manager over water quality and hazardous waste
in the Salt Lake Valley Health Department.
The UV lights themselves are inside canisters, and the water goes through
its normal filtration and then through the reaction chamber, says Lynn
Remund of CEM Aquatics, which installed the units, manufactured by a
In two hours, about 150,000 gallons can go through one of the units to be
treated by the UV lights. But swimmers can be exposed to contaminants in
water that has not yet been treated — and they also can recontaminate water.
So chlorination is still needed, although in lower doses.
There's still "some possibility of contamination," says Jim Bosserman, Salt
Lake County project manager. "It's not a cure-all, but it will help avoid or
manage an outbreak."
Pool operators, both public and private, in other cities and counties also
are considering the UV light systems or have installed other technological
options such as ozone to improve the ability to keep pools clean and safe.
EPA orders sterilization of lake's water
SKANEATELES - Skaneateles Lake, 16 miles long and with a maximum depth of
more than 300 feet, has long been known for being one of the cleanest bodies
of water in the world. Besides serving the village of Skaneateles, the
glacier-carved lake provides water to the city of Syracuse, along with
municipalities such as Camillus and Elbridge.
The lake's water is so pure, in fact, that the municipal water systems do
not filter the liquid. However, the Environmental Protection Agency wants to
ensure the lake's water is as clean as possible.
As part of the guidelines for what's known as the “Long Term 2 Enhanced
Surface Water Treatment Rule,” which provides standards for unfiltered water
systems, the EPA has asked the municipalities served by Skaneateles Lake to
upgrade their systems.
Despite the water's purity, EPA representatives say the water potentially
could contain some harmful parasites after it reaches the communities, so
they ordered the municipalities to implement some method of sterilization.
Both village and Syracuse leaders are considering installing ultraviolet
lamps to “zap” the harmful organisms, said John Hunt, village director of
“We use what's called a 'filtration avoidance system,'” he explained.
“That's pretty unusual in the context of water supply.”
The lake water is chlorinated and fluoridated. Until now, that was all the
EPA required, Hunt said.
“Chlorination can kill certain types of microorganisms, but there are
certain ones that chlorine has a very difficult time killing,” he said.
Two potentially harmful microorganisms are cryptosporidium, which can cause
digestive problems in humans, and giardia lamblia, which can cause the
intestinal disease popularly known as “beaver fever.”
Filtration will kill both parasites, Hunt said, but other technologies are
available that don't require filters.
“The way the ultraviolet system works is, you put a bank of UV lights near
your chlorinate, and that kills pretty much all your bacteria,” he said.
The UV systems, the plans for which Hunt said will be finalized in 2009,
will be installed atop the water tanks on East Street.
“We'll have to cut into the infrastructure, then cut into the main pipe up
at that tank farm to (install) the UV treatment system,” he said.
The completion of the system's installation, Hunt continued, depends on
operators hope to beat parasites with UV filtration systems
The Salt Lake Tribune
LAYTON - Utah's public pools are gearing up for the summer - and taking
extra precautions to make sure last year's outbreak of parasites is not
Some operators, like the Clearfield Aquatic Center, are installing
ultraviolet sanitation systems to guard against a parasite called
cryptosporidiosis. The parasite caused almost 2,000 cases of reported
illness last year.
The new equipment isn't cheap - Clearfield spent more than $88,000 on its
system. Brigham City pool officials say UV filtration is the only way to
make sure water is 100 percent clear of parasites, but it still isn't a
perfect solution. While a pool may be clean in the morning, it could become
infected within an hour of opening.
Engineering Methods for the Control of Airborne Infections
Harvard School of Public Health
Boston, MA - From July 14 to July 25 the Harvard School of Public Health
will offer a two-week course on Engineering Methods for the Control of
Airborne Infections: An International Perspective.
Educational Support Provided in Part By
World Health Organization
Center for Disease Control and Prevention
National Institute of Health
Lectures and laboratory workshops are designed to equip engineers from
around the world with the technical skills and methods used to control
infections that are predominantly or partially airborne.
Who Should Attend
• Professional engineers
• Health and safety specialists
• International health workers
• Government agency employees
• Relief and response teams
This two week, multi disciplinary continuing education course is globally
unique in that it brings together in one place a body of technical expertise
common to the control human airborne infections. These include tuberculosis
(including drug resistant strains), pandemic influenza, SARS, and selected
Control strategies will range from mechanical ventilation, filtration, and
the design and use of space, to the proper application of germicidal UV air
disinfection and natural ventilation. The course will include didactic
lectures, laboratories, and interactive workshops focusing on problem
solving in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings
The strategies covered will be applicable to preventing transmission in
workplaces, including clinics, hospitals, laboratories, and congregate
living settings. Experienced faculty will be drawn from Harvard, CDC, NIH,
and other domestic and international sources.
Upon Completion Of This Program, Participants Will Be Able To Plan and
• Engineering interventions and outbreak preparedness, in the context of a
comprehensive infection control plan for tuberculosis, influenza, SARS or
select airborne bioterrorism agents
• Optimal utilization of available indoor space, including laboratory
design to reduce airborne transmission, protecting workers, and specimens
• Natural and mechanical ventilation, engineering interventions
-filtration, UV, and the proper function of biological safety cabinets
• How to recommend and fit test personal respiratory protection
• Bioaerosol behavior in indoor spaces, effects of humidity, sunlight, and
• Directional airflow: design and measurement of relative room pressures
• Air filtration in-duct and free-standing room air disinfection units:
use, selection, limitations, and maintenance
• Ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection: theory, system design, fixtures, UV
measurement, safety, limitations, and maintenance. Upper room versus UV in
ducts or room air moving devices
• Hospital design and space utilization for optimal control of airborne
• Local ventilation: booths and rooms for sputum collection, bronchoscopy,
and other high-risk procedures
Wednesday, July 16, 2008
8:00 History and Theory of UVGI
9:00 UVGI in Ventilation Ducts and Free-Standing Air Disinfection Units
10:15 Upper Room UVGI: Theory, Design, Fixtures, Measurements, Safety,
11:00 UVGI Equipment: Maintenance and Repair
1:00 UVGI Meters and Measurements – Upper and Lower Room
2:30 UV Measurement Laboratory
3:30 Upper Room Design – Hands-On CAD and Other Methods
Upgraded UV System with Auto Wiper Installed
Erlanger, KY -- The operators of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in
Richmond, BC, Canada, have opted to replace the existing low pressure UV
disinfection system with a high output medium pressure UV system from
Aquionics. The WWTP serves the Riverport Sports and Entertainment Complex
and surrounding residential areas in southern Richmond, near Vancouver.
The facility decided to switch to medium pressure UV because cleaning the
low pressure system was very difficult. Each of the two low pressure units
contained 24 lamps – automatic wiping is not an option with that number of
lamps, so cleaning had to be done either manually or with chemicals. This is
an extremely time consuming process that required the entire system to be
The two Aquionics units, however, each contain just two medium pressure
lamps, each of which is fitted with an automatic wiper that keeps the quartz
sleeves clean during normal operation. There is no need to shut down the
system for manual or chemical cleaning and no danger of damaging the lamps
or exposure to wastewater.
The Aquionics units are installed after a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and
can treat a combined flow of up to 600 gallons per minute (2271 litres per
minute) of wastewater from the adjacent sports complex and residential
areas. The disinfected wastewater is discharged into the Fraser River.
Each of the UV units is fitted with a monitor which measures actual UV
intensity and dose from the two lamps – providing real time information
which can be downloaded for record keeping. Operating the UV system is
simple and, when lamps need replacing, it can easily be carried out by
Enva Delivers Advanced UV Technology Solution for Westmeath
Enva has announced the completion of its largest UV project to date for the
supply, installation and commissioning of UV disinfection systems in part of
the Westmeath water supply system.
Providing drinking water disinfection for four water treatment plants,
including an installation at the recently upgraded Athlone water treatment
plant, these systems will ultimately treat approximately 10 million litres
of drinking water per day. They will provide greater protection from disease
causing bacteria that may be present in the raw water, including
cryptosporidium and a range of other chlorine resistant pathogens.
With UV technology, the disinfection process takes place as water flows
through irradiation chambers (see Panel). A photochemical effect is created
using UV light, and vital processes are stopped within the micro-organism
cells, therefore making the micro-organism harmless. The UV light
inactivates microbes by penetrating cell membranes to disrupt DNA molecules
and prevent cell replication. When a microbe cannot replicate, it is
incapable of damaging humans.
“UV is widely acknowledged as a critical component in the disinfection of a
wide range of microbiological contaminants that can be found in drinking
water. It has been successfully applied across the UK and United States for
cryptosporidium inactivation, and research also shows that UV technology is
effective against all known micro-organisms, and provides a highly effective
solution against bacteria, algae, moulds, yeasts, viruses, cysts and
protozoa,” points out Finbarr Pyne, technical development Director at Enva.
He continues: “Another key advantage of UV technology is that it also
destroys micro-organisms which are resistant to chlorine, while UV does not
form disinfection by-products which can pose health risks.”
Enva has now supplied in excess of 100 UV units of various sizes, with
individual units ranging from low flow units to large flows of greater than
1,400m3 per hour. Units can be fully integrated with standard PLC or Scada
controls, and are supplied in conjunction with ATG UV technology, which has
over 25 years experience in the manufacture and application of UV technology
across a range of international clients from large blue chip organisations
and government controlled agencies. All units are third party bio-assay
validated in accordance with the 2007 US EPA guidelines for UV technology.
Greg Duggan, Senior Engineer, Water Services at Westmeath County Council
advises: “‘Westmeath County Council provides quality drinking water for over
66,000 people throughout the county on a daily basis. The Council had to
deal with an outbreak of cryptospiridiosis in 2002, which greatly impacted
on the quality of life for one third of water consumers. In order to meet
the demands of the new European Communities (Drinking Water) (No.2)
Regulations 2007 and minimise the threat of a micro-biological contamination
to its water sources, Westmeath County Council has introduced innovative
technology and work procedures as a highly effective solution to a complex
Key Support Services
Highlighting the key supports services offered by Enva, Finbarr Pyne adds:
“As well as supplying and installing UV technology, Enva also offer the
reassurance of a full and immediate after-sales service back-up. We offer
full maintenance contracts by fully trained service engineers. We also
provide a 24 hour callout service as part of our maintenance contract, while
our facility in Cork carries a full range of back-up equipment.”
Enva Ireland specialises in providing innovative, efficient and
cost-effective solutions for the treatment and disposal of a diverse range
of wastes. The company is structured into seven divisions, with each
division focusing on a certain business area and having its own identity
within Enva. These divisions include Hazardous Waste, Water Treatment, Soil
Treatment, Industrial & Automotive, Field Services, Underground Services and
Foodservice Solutions. It operates four licensed facilities in the Republic
of Ireland (Portlaoise, Shannon, Cork and Dublin) and two in Northern
Ireland (Drumaness and Carryduff). It also has a Water Treatment operation
based in Runcorn in the UK.
It operates high tech laboratories, at its Portlaoise, Shannon and Cork
facilities, which focus on developing innovative treatment processes
focusing primarily on recovery rather than disposal. According to Enva. It
is currently the only environmental solutions company within Ireland to
offer this level of specialised technical expertise combined with the
infrastructure to deliver this service.
Enva Water Treatment specialises in accurately diagnosing operating issues
at water and effluent treatment plants and then identifying and developing
the most appropriate and cost-effective solution. It also provides a
comprehensive range of water treatment products, as well as laboratory and
engineering solutions for water and effluent treatment.
This division recently moved to a new purpose built 20,000 sq ft facility in
Ringaskiddy, County Cork, where it employs 25 people and houses the
company’s new state-of-the-art microbiological and chemistry laboratories.
Enva hopes to expand its water treatment services to broader markets in
Ireland and beyond, and in particular, to capitalise on the development of
its unique electro-coagulation water recycling technology.
UV disinfection in meat processing
Hanovia UV disinfection systems can improve safety standards and increase
product shelf life in the meat processing industry. The compact systems are
easily incorporated into many meat processing applications including wash
water, brine chillers, meat marinade and pickle injectors and also for
disinfecting wastewater for re-use. Disinfecting the water used to rinse
carcasses and to wash process equipment and work surfaces can dramatically
decrease contamination, increasing shelf life.
UV also reduces the amount of chlorine needed to disinfect rinse and wash
UV systems on recirculating brine chillers and meat pickle and marinade
injectors are very effective at destroying harmful micro-organisms like
Listeria and E.coli.
Depending on the model, some UV systems can operate very effectively through
a wide range of temperatures and applications - from super-cooled brines to
very hot sanitation cycles.
Additionally, in marinade applications, operating costs are reduced through
less frequent fluid change-over.
The other application for UV in meat processing operations is as a
non-chemical treatment for plant wastewater.
Increasingly, meat processors are caught between conflicting sets of
regulations - while food hygiene regulations in many countries require
increased use of water to rinse carcasses, environmental regulations are
limiting the amount of fresh water that a plant can consume.
With only so much fresh water coming in, plants are forced to reduce
capacity in order to meet these conflicting requirements.
By re-using disinfected wastewater in non-contact applications like chillers
and cooling towers, more fresh water can be devoted to washing and
Hanovia UV systems can be used in conjunction with other waste treatment
processes to disinfect wastewater without chemicals, making it fit to use
By using this low-maintenance technology, plant production capacity can be
increased and hazardous chemicals are eliminated.
Designed to meet the stringent sanitary requirements of the food industry,
all Hanovia UV units can be easily integrated into plant control systems.
Maintenance requirements are minimal - typically the UV lamps only need
replacing once a year, an easy operation which can be carried out by on-site
Automatic internal wipers keep the UV lamps clean, ensuring optimum UV
output at all times - especially important in solutions with a high
concentration of suspended solids.
Based in the United Kingdom, Hanovia is a world leader in UV disinfection
technology for processing applications.
The company has over 80 years experience in the design, development,
manufacture and distribution of UV systems worldwide.
Closed vessel, medium pressure UV available in UK
After tremendous worldwide success of large, closed vessel medium pressure
UV disinfection systems in municipal water and wastewater applications,
Berson UV-techniek now offers them in the UK. Berson, a Halma company based
in the Netherlands, will be building on the reputation of its British sister
company Hanovia, and using the Hanovia extensive service support network.
Berson medium pressure InLine systems are especially designed to provide
closed vessel disinfection of both drinking water and wastewater at very
high volumes and flow rates.
Berson is the only manufacturer of medium pressure UV water disinfection
systems to be certified to the stringent German DVGW Standard, W294 (Parts
1, 2 and 3) - the highest standard currently possible in the world.
Major advantages of closed vessel, medium pressure UV compared to open
channel, low pressure UV systems include a much smaller footprint,
automated, mechanical cleaning of the UV lamps, and permanent de-activation
Conventional low pressure open channel UV wastewater systems often need
large treatment channels and many numbers of UV lamps, taking up valuable
space that could be used for other purposes.
Berson closed vessel, InLine medium pressure systems, on the other hand,
have a very small footprint and can easily be integrated into existing
pipework with minimal disruption: they are already widely used in Germany,
France, Scandinavia, the USA and Australia.
Keeping all the UV lamps clean in open channel, low pressure systems is also
a difficult task and usually requires chemical dosing, a costly and
time-consuming process which produces unwanted waste products which have to
be dealt with effectively.
Closed vessel systems, on the other hand, use in-built automatic wipers
which manually clean the quartz sleeves surrounding the UV lamps, doing away
with the need for chemical cleaning.
Finally, microbial re-growth, known as photo-reactivation, has been shown to
occur when micro-organisms such as E.coli are treated with low pressure UV
and subsequently exposed to sunlight, as is the case with open channel, low
pressure UV systems.
This does not happen with closed vessel medium pressure UV systems.
'We are delighted to be moving into the UK municipal water and wastewater
market,' commented Sjors van Gaalen, Berson managing director: 'Our UV
technology is well established on the European continent and in the USA and
Australia, but relatively unknown in the UK.
We strongly believe that our unique offering of closed-vessel, medium
pressure UV technology will prove just as successful here as it has done
around the world'.
Berson, along with fellow UV companies Hanovia in the UK and Aquionics in
the USA, is part of the Fluid Technology Division of Halma plc.
Together, the three companies make up one of the largest suppliers of UV
disinfection technology in the world.
January 25, 2008:
UV Disinfection Reduces Byproducts
Erlanger, KY - It is now nearly three years since Poughkeepsies' Water
Treatment Facility in New York state installed six Aquionics UV disinfection
systems for drinking water treatment. In that time the closed chamber,
medium pressure systems have been performing beyond expectations.
"We get approximately 5,000 hours of lamp life per UV system, but a few
lamps have run for as long as 11,000 hours, which is excellent" commented
Paul Lill, the facility's plant manager. "This means we only have to change
the lamps about once a year while also reducing our running costs - always
an important consideration."
Poughkeepsies' Water Treatment Facility serves a community of nearly 80,000,
drawing water from the Hudson River to meet an average daily demand of
10.5MGD. Prior to installing the Aquionics equipment in March of 2005,
chlorination was used in open settling basins, followed by filtration. This
process required substantial chemical usage and produced significant
With the addition of the Aquionics UV treatment equipment the amount of
chlorine required for primary disinfection was significantly reduced, with a
corresponding lowering of disinfection byproducts by up to 20%. Secondary,
residual disinfection is provided by chloramines. The resulting disinfection
levels complied with the new guidelines of the Surface Water Treatment Rule
issued by the EPA.
The six Aquionics UV systems are situated downstream of the filters and
operate in parallel. The medium pressure, closed channel design disinfects
with far fewer lamps and with a much smaller footprint than comparable low
pressure systems. Each chamber is fitted with UV monitors to measure actual
UV fluence and dose for record keeping. With the addition of an optional
online transmittance monitor, real time transmittance values are used to
automatically adjust the dose pacing of the UV system.
"We originally considered alternative disinfection technologies to meet our
goals," explained Lill. "The units' lower relative cost, their compact size
which fits into our existing facility and the technical merit were all
deciding factors in choosing Aquionics equipment."
To keep maintenance low, the systems are equipped with automatic cleaning
mechanisms which keep the UV lamp sleeves free of organic deposits. When the
lamps need replacing, it is a simple operation that is carried out by
January 14, 2008:
SANYO Provides Patented SafeCell UV Technology to Solve Contamination
SANYO BIOMEDICAL SOLUTIONS, A division of SANYO Commercial Solutions
provides patented SafeCell UV technology to solve contamination problems
that occur in cell culture incubators
The CO2 incubator remains an essential tool for research and clinical
laboratory work by directly exposing cell cultures and culture media to an
enriched environment for growth.
Manufacturers of laboratory incubators claim to solve contamination problems
with various approaches to incubator design through heat sterilization. Some
of these techniques are moderately successful but limited in terms of
long-term efficacy and convenience. Most require periods of downtime during
which cultures must be removed and placed in other incubators to maintain
temperature, humidity and CO2 levels. The problem with this is that all cell
cultures, CO2 sensor, HEPA filters and other components must be removed
prior to the process, effectively suspending the productivity of the
incubator often in excess of 24 hours. It is an inefficient use of time and
SANYO’S solution to this problem is patented UV technology. “In 2001 SANYO
Electric Biomedical Co., Ltd. introduced a cell culture CO2 incubator that
employs an isolated narrow-bandwidth ultraviolet (UV) light decontamination
to destroy airborne contaminants in the incubator chamber, as well as
water-borne organisms in the humidity water reservoir. Integrated with
copper enriched interior surfaces and components which inhibit the growth of
organisms without surface discoloration, the SANYO incubator offers an
optimum cell culture environment through a process of Active Background
Contamination Control™ which protects cultures in vitro, and minimizes
frequent chamber cleaning and downtime,” exert from A Comparative Analysis
of Ultraviolet Light Decontamination vs. High Heat Sterilization in the Cell
Culture CO2 Incubator, with the Use of Copper-Enriched Stainless Steel
Construction to Achieve Active Background Contamination Control whitepaper.
A directional air-flow and containment plenum surrounds the UV exposed
humidity reservoir in a removable, stainless steel pan. It is designed to
independently destroy airborne particles during door openings, as well as
contaminants that typically grow in the water reservoir. Because the UV lamp
is visibly isolated from the cell culture chamber by a plenum cover, UV
sterilization of air and water remains in process while cell culture
In 2006, comparative testing commissioned by SANYO and performed by a
certified independent testing laboratory confirms that the SANYO ultraviolet
light sterilization process is as effective against bacteria, yeasts and
molds as high heat sterilization at sustained temperatures ranging from
+90°C to +140°C offered in competitive products. Additionally, the latest
SANYO release, Model MCO-18AIC-UV, maintains an optimum cell culture
environment in vitro through a process of "Active Background Contamination
Control,” which a heat sterilization technique absolutely cannot replicate.
January 12, 2008:
Detroit Lakes Community Pool Gets Ultraviolet Fix - Air Quality Was a
Problem for Some Swimmers
Pippi Mayfield DL-Online
Several years ago, the Detroit Lakes Community and Cultural Center staff
noticed the bricks on the outside of the building by the pool were turning
white. After investigating, they found moisture from the inside was being
“It obviously concerned us as to what’s going on,” CEO Stu Omberg said.
They found the problem wasn’t the pool but rather the air. In the world of
pools, air pressure should be tested at negative. The DLCCC’s was positive.
There are two different ways to treat pools — chlorine, which the DLCCC
uses, and bromine, which is extremely expensive.
“The vast majority of commercial pools use chlorine,” Omberg said.
Chlorine is used to burn the bacteria in the pool. The downside of chlorine
is that it degrades and turns into chloramines, which are lifted into the
air and can cause respiratory problems for some people.
Tracy Boldt of rural Frazee said her 10-year-old daughter was one of those
“She would ingest the gas Monday and by Thursday she’s having a severe
migraine headache,” Boldt said. “By the weekend she was fine, detoxifying,
you could say.”
An avid swimmer who formerly swam for the DL Sunfish, and now swims for an
independent group, the girl suffered symptoms that included painful
headaches, respiratory problems, vomiting and even passing out and
“She said the floor levitated up at her in the shower,” said Boldt, who is a
registered nurse. The girl was taken to a doctor and a chiropractor, but the
symptoms didn’t go away until she quit using the community center pool.
“We eventually realized it was the pool, and that took care of it. She’s
fine now,” Boldt said. “She swam at the indoor pool at Perham all summer and
she swims at the Detroit Lakes High School pool now. She’s got no problems.”
It’s the chloramines that have been causing the problems at the DLCCC.
Omberg said staff checks the chlorine levels in the pool twice a day to make
sure they are within state health department guidelines, which they always
“Pool water wasn’t the issue,” he said.
The Minnesota Department of Health cannot test air quality, he said, but
when it tested the water quality, the DLCCC always passed the test.
As the chloramines formed and the pool would fill with more people, with the
splashing, the chloramines would lift into the air and attach to objects in
the room, causing items to rust.
Also, Omberg pointed out, chlorine is odorless, so it was the chloramines
people could smell when walking into the pool area.
So, to solve the problem of the chloramines, the DLCCC received a $53,700
loan from the Midwest Minnesota Community Development Corp., the developers
of the community center, to install an ultraviolet system to treat the water
before it goes into the pool.
The system was installed in the pool at the end of last week and will be in
the spa within the next 45 days.
Eight hundred gallons of water per minute are fed into the pool, and now
that water will run through the ultraviolet system before hitting the pool.
It will help kill the chloramines.
The water will be sanitized as it comes into the pool so the “chlorine
doesn’t have to work as hard,” he said. It will eliminate the chloramines,
and the air quality will improve within three days.
“This is state of the art, leading edge technology to treat water before
it’s in the pool or spa,” he said.
With the installation of the system being the first step in the process,
Omberg said various crews will be in and out throughout the next three to
four months working to alleviate the air pressure problems in the pool.
He said he is “ecstatic” the DLCCC can provide the ultraviolet treatment
system and that swimmers are excited because they know the benefit the
system has on water and air quality.
January 2, 2008:
World to Focus on Improved Sanitation in 2008
NEW YORK, New York, January 2, 2008 (ENS) - A wastewater treatment project
in the Russian city of Ufa is reducing the amount of raw sewage that flows
into the Volga River basin. The project is part of a global push to improve
sanitation this year - the International Year of Sanitation 2008.
Now, the municipal water utility UfaVodocanal is seeking to finish the work
while at the same time reducing the environmental impact of the wastewater
With this goal in mind, the European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development, EBRD, has agreed to lend the utility 500 million roubles (US
$20.4 million) over the next 13 years so that it can invest in cleaner and
more energy efficient technology.
The loan will enable UfaVodocanal to treat sewage with ultraviolet
disinfection technology and purchase methane tanks. These tanks will capture
biological gas from the sewage and the gas will be burned off to produce
heat for UfaVodocanal's own use.
"The ultraviolet technology will enable the utility to significantly reduce
the levels of untreated sewage discharged into the Belaya River,"
UfaVodocanal Director Viacheslav Semenovich Gordienko.
"This project will give a boost to the economy of the city and is key in
improving environmental standards," said Ufa Mayor Pavel Rurikovich Kachkaev.
The International Year of Sanitation 2008 was established by the UN
General Assembly in December 2006 to accelerate progress towards meeting the
Millennium Development Goal of reducing by half the proportion of people
living without access to improved sanitation by 2015.
A World Health Organization, report issued Tuesday finds that while coverage
has been advancing in many countries, recent estimates consistently show the
sanitation component of the MDG sanitation target to be off-track, with "a
projected shortfall of 550 million people in 2015 from target achievement."
The estimated total spending, excluding program costs, required in
developing countries to meet the sanitation component of the MDG target is
US$ 142 billion, the World Health Organization report calculates. This
translates to per-capita spending of US$ 28 for sanitation.
Annually, this translates to roughly US$ 4 billion for water supply and US$
14 for sanitation, an annual combined total of US$ 18 billion.
Their results compare with previous estimates of the annual investment costs
of increasing coverage to meet the water and sanitation MDG target, which
have been variously estimated at US$ 9 billion, US$ 11.3 billion, US$ 18
billion and US$ 30 billion.
"Given the lack of up-to-date data on actual combined spending by
governments and households on water supply and sanitation in developing
countries, it is not possible to estimate the current financing gap at the
global level," according to authors Guy Hutton of the World Bank's Water and
Sanitation Program in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and Jamie Bartram of the World
Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.
Improved sanitation includes clean, safe toilets, wastewater management and
hygiene promotion, all of which prevent the transfer of pathogens in human
waste. When not treated safely, this waste adversely impacts health and
impedes social and economic development.
The International Year of Sanitation will include major regional conferences
on sanitation to share best practices and help accelerate progress,
including those that focus on school sanitation.
It will also help encourage public and private partnerships, to help tap
into the comparative strengths of each sector, advocate and raise awareness
on sanitation, leverage additional funding, and develop country-level plans
Many activities and events are planned both inside and outside the United
Nations for Sanitation and Hygiene Week March 15 to 21 and World Water Day
on March 22.
Halo Technologies Introduces The World's Only Germ-Killing Vacuum
The Halo™ UV-ST Ultraviolet Vacuum Uses Ultraviolet Light and HEPA
Filtration to Attack Unseen Household Microbes Without Harsh Chemicals
CHARLOTTE, NC — The Halo UV-ST is a new chemical-free vacuum — the only one
of its kind — that combines powerful pick-up and ultraviolet technology to
clean dirt and kill germs that lurk and thrive in carpets, including dust
mites, molds, viruses and bacteria, even MRSA.
Carpets — which are rarely, if ever, disinfected — cover more than 70
percent of floor space in homes and contain the highest concentration of
invisible germs and allergens. A typical carpet harbors more than 100,000
dust mites per square yard; these dust mites are the number one indoor cause
of allergies. Ultraviolet light in the "C" spectrum (UV-C) disables the DNA
of these household pests, destroying their ability to multiply. The Halo
UV-ST contains a UV-C bulb chamber at the bottom of the unit. Activating the
ultraviolet technology while running the vacuum over carpets, instantly
kills germs living between the fibers.
Ultraviolet light technology has been used for more than 60 years to purify
drinking water and sterilize operating rooms and medical instruments.
Independent researchers have tested and proven the efficacy of the
germ-killing benefits in the Halo UV-ST.
"The Halo UV-ST is more than a high-performing traditional vacuum cleaner;
it's the next generation in home cleaning. We've all disinfected other areas
of our home for years. Now our Halo Ultraviolet Vacuums allow you to achieve
that same level of clean in your carpeting without any extra effort and
without using any harmful chemicals," said Ken Garcia, CEO of Halo
Technologies, Inc. "This product will change the lives of allergy and asthma
sufferers, parents with young children, pet owners and anyone that wants a
cleaner, greener home."
The Halo HEPA filter provides the highest level of air filtration available
and is comparable to the quality level used by the military in fighter
planes. The new soft-top model is equipped with special features that
optimize the vacuum's breakthrough technology, including: versatile
attachments for easy access to hard-to-reach places, an extra-long 31-foot
power cord, and a height adjuster to accommodate various surfaces, including
tile and wood. The UV-ST has a 14-inch cleaning path and two powerful
motors, yet it only weighs 16.8 pounds.
Clean Air in the Arctic Circle thanks to ozone-generating UV Lamps
Ozone Generating Lamps Eliminate Odours in Finnish, Santa Theme Park
Every year in the time running up to Christmas, Santa is visited by many
children and their parents in the Santa Park theme park close to the Arctic
Circle in Lapland/Finland. Santa Park is housed in a mountain and, in a
large central hall, the visitors are entertained by a number of activities.
For example, elves learn in a school how to prepare and pack the children’s
presents; in an ice gallery, visitors can marvel at many animals sculpted in
ice; and, being Finland, there is naturally an ice bar, where cocktails can
be enjoyed in ice glasses at the bar on an imaginary beach.
The Santa Park is open only once a year during advent. During the rest of
the year the site is shut. Consequently, moulds are formed as well as
associated unpleasant smells and these are controlled by means of UV lamps
from Heraeus Noblelight.
The physical method UV radiation is an economical and environmentally
friendly alternative to chemical treatments. By using special Heraeus UV
lamps ozone is generated from the oxygen in the environmental air. To do
this, the emitted wavelength of 185nm is used. The longer wavelength of 254
nm photolysis the ozone to excited oxygen, which oxidises the long chain
The company BonAir manufactures and sells ozone-generating equipment in
Finland and this equipment is fitted out with UV lamps from Heraeus
Noblelight. The systems are fitted with four ozone-generating, U-shaped 120
Watt lamps. The capacity of the large BonAir Ozonator allows the generation
of 64 grammes of ozone per hour.
This system has been used to treat the 35,000 cubic metres of air in the
tunnel system and the main hall at Santa Park, which has been treated two
and half days. In addition, three smaller pieces of equipment are also used
with a capacity of 3.2 gramme of ozone per hour. Finally, 300 metre long
channels of the air conditioning system were supplied with ozone-containing
air for six hours.
“The end result was fantastic. I destroyed all the mould and at the end
there was no trace of the previous bad smells!” commented Raimo Vartiainen,
managing director of BonAir in Finland. When the project was finished, Santa
himself thanked Raimo Vartiainen and his wife personally.
Following on from the development of UV lamp technology by Richard Küch in
1904, Heraeus Noblelight can look back on over 100 years experience in the
development, production and application of UV lamps. Through innovations
such as Longlife technology Heraeus continues to set milestones in lamp
technology to increase the productivity of industrial processes. Heraeus
Noblelight is the original equipment manufacturer and preferred partner of
system builders providing equipment for the disinfection of water, air and
surfaces, as well as for industrial photochemical processes and oxidation.
Alternatives to the bottled water
In 2006, bottled water sales worldwide totaled 164 billion liters, 7 percent
of which was sold in Latin America, and half of that in Mexico.
One alternative to bottled water is solar water disinfection, a clean and
cheap technology used to disinfect water in the home, created by Lebanese
scientist Aftim Acra. The treatment consists of filling transparent plastic
water bottles and leaving them out in the sun.
The heat and ultraviolet rays disinfect the water in six hours of
sunlight or two full days under cloud cover, after which the water is safe
The SODIS Foundation, named after the initials for this technology and based
in Cochabamba, Bolivia, is promoting this system also in Ecuador, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru.
Ultraviolet Lighting During Orthopedic Surgery and the Rate of Infection
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American).
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
Merrill A. Ritter, MD*, Emily M. Olberding, BS* and Robert A. Malinzak,
* The Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis Hospital—Mooresville, 1199
Hadley Road, Mooresville, IN 46158. E-mail address for M.A. Ritter:
Investigation performed at the Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis
Hospital—Mooresville, Mooresville, Indiana
Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in
support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a
member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a
commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No
commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits
to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or
other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member
of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Background: Ultraviolet lighting is an alternative to laminar airflow in
the operating room that may be as effective for lowering the number of
environmental bacteria and possibly lowering infection rates by killing the
bacteria rather than simply reducing the number at the operative site. The
purpose of the present study was to compare the infection rates following
joint replacement procedures performed by one orthopaedic surgeon with and
without the use of ultraviolet lighting.
Methods: From July 1986 to July 2005, one surgeon performed 5,980 total joint
replacements at one facility. In September 1991, ultraviolet lighting was
installed in the operating rooms. All procedures that were performed before
the installation of the ultraviolet lighting utilized horizontal laminar
airflow, whereas all procedures that were performed after that date utilized
ultraviolet lighting without laminar airflow. Factors associated with the rate
of infection were analyzed.
Results: Over a nineteen-year period, forty-seven infections occurred
following 5,980 joint replacements. The infection rate without ultraviolet
lighting (and with laminar airflow) was 1.77%, and the infection rate with
ultraviolet lighting was 0.57% (p < 0.0001). The odds of infection were 3.1
times greater for procedures performed without ultraviolet lighting (and with
laminar airflow) as compared with those performed with only ultraviolet
lighting (p < 0.0001). The infection rate associated with total hip
replacement decreased from 1.03% to 0.72% (p = 0.5407), and the infection rate
associated with total knee replacement decreased from 2.20% to 0.50% (p <
0.0001). Revision surgery, previous infection, age, total body mass index, use
of cement, disease, and diagnosis were not associated with an elevated
Conclusion: When appropriate safety precautions are taken, ultraviolet
lighting appears to be an effective way to lower the risk of infection in the
operating room during total joint replacement surgery.
Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors for a
complete description of levels of evidence.
Reposted with permission from Rights Department, The Journal of Bone and
Copyright 2007 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
Ultraviolet Lighting During Orthopedic Surgery and the Rate of Infection