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UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.

UV Articles 2009

UV News October 9, 2009: STOP TB NEWS
Stop TB Partnership Secretariat, World Health Organization

Stop TB Partnership highlighted at High-level Segment of UN Economic and Social Council

The High-level Segment of the UN Economic and Social Council in Geneva in July focused on improving global health. At a session called "Partnerships in health–lessons from multi-stakeholder initiatives", Dr Marcos Espinal, Executive Secretary of the Stop TB Partnership, addressed delegates about the Stop TB Partnership's achievements and the challenges it faces...

The Stop TB Partnership, called the Stop TB Initiative at the time of its inception, was established in 1998. Its aim is to realize the goal of eliminating TB as a public health problem and, ultimately, to obtain a world free of TB. It comprises a network of international organizations, countries, donors from the public and private sectors, governmental and nongovernmental organizations and individuals that have expressed an interest in working together to achieve this goal. It is housed by the World Health Organization.

American Air & Water, Inc. is a Partner in Stop TB Partnership since 2007.

Visit the Stop TB Partnership website: http://www.stoptb.org

UV News October 6, 2009: New Orono Wastewater Facility Uses UV Light
By Jessica Bloch, Bangor Daily News, Maine

Orono's Water Pollution Control Facility, which is now up and running, is a state-of-the-art plant that Superintendent Paul Wintle feels will be a model for other Maine communities.

"We'll be getting visitors, I'm sure, once the word gets around," said Wintle, who led the Town Council's operations committee and Town Manager Catherine Conlow on a tour Monday afternoon.

The facility cost about $15.2 million and took about 2 1/2 years to complete. Olver Associates of Winterport was the environmental engineer for the project.

The old facility had the capacity to process about 3.5 million gallons of wastewater a day, Wintle said. The new plant can take on about 5.65 million gallons. About 52 percent of the water handled there is from the University of Maine campus, while the other 48 percent is town waste.

It's also better positioned for overflow during heavy rain, he added.

One of the landmark improvements has been the addition of a building in which the wastewater is disinfected with ultraviolet light instead of the standard chlorine bleach or other chemicals.

"It's a safer way of disinfecting," said Wintle, who is sure Orono's facility is one of few in the state with the UV system.

"I think we're heads and shoulders above other communities of our size in the state of Maine," Councilor Lianne Harris said.

UV News September 28, 2009: Calgon Carbon to Provide Ultraviolet Disinfection System to Massachusetts Water Resources Authority

Calgon Carbon Corporation has been selected by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) to provide an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system for the John Carroll Water Treatment Plant in Marlboro, Massachusetts.

Twelve Sentinel Chevron 48 reactors (Chevron 48), scheduled to be delivered in June 2012, will treat up to 450 million gallons of drinking water per day. The Chevron 48, which is Calgon Carbon's highest flow unit in its Sentinel product line, can treat up to 45 million gallons of water per day. Earlier this year, the company was awarded a contract to supply 12 similar reactors for the treatment of San Francisco's drinking water.

Commenting on this announcement, Jim Sullivan, Calgon Carbon's vice president of UV technologies and business development said, "We are pleased that the MWRA selected our Sentinel® design to meet Boston's disinfection and compliance needs. The continued success of the Chevron 48 strengthens our position in the growing, global drinking water disinfection market."

UV News September 7, 2009: Wisconsin School District Uses UV Light to Fight H1N1
Kstp.com/news by Becky Nahm

A school district in Wisconsin is utilizing light in its fight to prevent the spread of the H1N1 virus and other contagious illnesses.

The Mequon-Thiensville School District, located near Milwaukee, owns a mobile UV sanitizer.

The machine uses ultraviolet light to scan classrooms and zap flu germs before they spread.

The district bought the UV sanitizer a couple of years ago and found it worked well when H1N1 hit last spring.

The district superintendent, Dr. Demond Means, said, "We were able to really focus attention on sanitizing classrooms quickly and efficiently with the device."

The machine only takes about 12 minutes to clean and sanitize a room. It costs about $3,000.

UV News August 19, 2009: Aquionics to unveil new UV systems at WEFTEC
WaterandWasteWater.com / By Damian Corbet / Source: Aquionics, Inc. - Halma Group

Aquionics UV Disinfection System - Medium Pressure

Aquionics to unveil new UV systems

Erlanger, KY -- UV disinfection specialist Aquionics will be unveiling two new product ranges at this year's WEFTEC Technical Exhibition & Conference in Orlando, Florida (booth # 3821). The first is its new OpenLine range of open channel UV treatment systems for the secondary wastewater market, employing a new type of low pressure high output (LPHO) amalgam lamps. The second is a new range of USEPA validated closed vessels, known as the AF-3 Series, also employing LPHO lamps. In addition, the company will be showing its validated, closed vessel medium pressure InLine+ UV system.

The OpenLine Series has been designed to treat secondary wastewater flows over a wide range of flows and UV transmittances. Employing a new type of LPHO amalgam lamp that possesses a more stable output over its operating life, the OpenLine Series offers a neatly packaged solution that is pre-engineered for wastewater applications.

The AF-3 Series also employs high efficiency LPHO amalgam lamps, the largest of which has a maximum output of 500W, one of the largest ever deployed in a UV system. By employing CFD models at the start of the design process, the AF-3 Series is able to utilize the full benefit of the lamp output, resulting in a high flow per kW system efficiency. Validation work in accordance with the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM) has been completed.

The two new products compliment the highly successful InLine+ Series, which is specially optimized to treat high volume drinking water, reuse and wastewater flows and is validated in accordance with all major guidelines, including the USEPA UVDGM, the AwwaRF/NWRI and the German DVGW standard for drinking water.

“It’s exciting to see our product portfolio broaden,” says Aquionics President, Bill Decker. “In launching these two new product lines we are able to offer our customers a full portfolio of solutions to meet their disinfection needs.”

A selection of Aquionics' other UV systems will also be on display, including a transparent model showing the internal workings of a UV system, such as the lamp wiper mechanism. Experts will be on hand at all times to provide technical expertise and answer questions.

WEFTEC - 82nd Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference, October 10-14, 2009

UV News August 13, 2009: World’s first medium pressure, closed vessel UV systems to gain formal approval for wastewater reuse
Environmental-expert.com / Source: Aquionics, Inc. - Halma Group

Aquionics UV Disinfection System - Medium Pressure

Berson's InLine+ medium pressure, closed vessel UV systems - validated for wastewater reuse applications

Berson's InLine+ medium pressure, closed vessel UV systems are the first in the world to gain formal approval for wastewater reuse applications. Having undergone extensive third party testing by Carollo Engineers in the USA, they have been formally approved for post-filtration and reverse osmosis applications by the California Department of Public Health (Title-22 validation) and are now validated for wastewater reuse applications in accordance with AwwaRF/NWRI* guidelines. Berson's UV systems are sold in North America by its sister company Aquionics Inc.

Wastewater reuse has been practiced in various forms for decades, with the USA leading the way in reuse research. It is now a major issue worldwide, with large areas of western and southern USA experiencing chronic water shortages. Large-scale reuse projects are now also being considered in other water-poor regions of the world such as Australia, Singapore, China and southern Europe.

The most common method of wastewater disinfection for reuse has long been chlorination. Despite chlorine’s impressive track record, concerns regarding disinfection by-products (DBPs) and, more recently, disinfection performance with respect to pathogen inactivation, are driving the conversion from chlorine disinfection to other disinfection methods such as UV, which does not produce any significant DBPs.

Closed vessel UV systems are easy to install within existing pipework, so there is minimal disruption to plant operation. Day to day operation is simple and maintenance is minor. The only regular requirement is changing the UV lamps and wiper rings once a year, a straightforward operation that can be carried out by on-site personnel.

Potential applications for wastewater reuse are extremely wide-ranging and include any instance where water is needed for non-potable use. The most popular and widespread use is for agricultural irrigation and for other irrigation applications such as golf courses, parks, fountains and lawns. Reclaimed wastewater is also used for groundwater recharge applications such as aquifer storage and recovery or preventing saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Other uses include toilet and urinal flushing, fire fighting, foundation stabilization in the construction industry and artificial snow generation. In all these applications, reused wastewater relieves the burden on existing potable supplies.

“We are extremely pleased that we have achieved this important validation,' commented Berson's Managing Director Andrew Clark. 'Our state-of-the-art technology uses UV sensors to actually measure how the UV systems are performing. This permits much greater control while saving energy, especially when compared to the existing methods of applying crude safety factors to systems that use high numbers of lamps or are unwiped.”

UV News August 13, 2009: UV disinfection systems receive additional validation

THE Berson InLine+ series of UV water disinfection systems is now fully validated in accordance with the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM).

Berson says that the validation certifies the use of the systems for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) released by EPA in November 2006, and their products are no longer subject to any Cryptosporidium or Giardia patent fees for UV disinfection applications worldwide.

The testing was conducted by Carollo Engineers at its Portland, Oregon validation facility in the USA and covered a three-dimensional matrix of UV transmittance, flow and reduction equivalent dose, using both T1 and MS-2 phage test surrogates. Dose delivery equations were derived for all reactors that predict T1 and MS-2 RED as a function of flow, UV-T, UV sensor readings, and microbe UV sensitivity.

Berson says it is only one of a few UV system suppliers capable of providing a complete range of UV systems with capacities between 10 – 10,000 m³/hour, certified to the newest DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water) norm, W294, Part 1, 2 & 3 – the highest standard currently possible in the world.

UV News August 11, 2009: UV treatment of choice for Maine’s twin cities

AUBURN, ME — The Auburn Water District is using stimulus funds to help finance its new $7.7 million ultraviolet (UV) water treatment plant being built on the banks of Lake Auburn, an August 10 Sun Journal story said.

Local, state and national officials were scheduled to take part in a ceremonial groundbreaking on August 11 at the construction site.

John Storer of the Auburn Water District said that using UV disinfection treatment appealed to the district because “it’s not another chemical we’re putting into the water.”

Construction, which already has started, is scheduled to wrap up in 2010. The facility will provide treated water to the cities of Auburn and Lewiston, the story said.

UV News July 29, 2009: New UVCalc Module for UV light disinfection
Water and Wastewater.com

Charlottesville, VA -- Blue Ridge Numerics, Inc. today announced the availability of the new CFdesign UVCalc Module, an industry-first Upfront CFD solution for simulating and validating ultraviolet (UV) reactor performance to ensure accurate fluence rates (irradiances) for UV light disinfection. The use of germicidal UV light is a rapidly expanding technology that is used to ensure public safety by deactivating the DNA of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, removing their ability to multiply and cause disease.

With the new partnership of Blue Ridge Numerics, Inc. and Bolton Photosciences, Inc., design engineers developing UV applications for drinking water disinfection, wastewater treatment, and manufacturing processes for the food and beverage, medical device, pharmaceutical, and semiconductors industries (among others), can now easily leverage fluid flow and UV calculation capabilities to speed up and optimize their product development process.

The CFdesign UVCalc Module furthers the commitment of Blue Ridge Numerics to empower engineers with CAD-driven simulation tools that optimize product performance during the digital design phase. The ability to validate UV reactor performance for biodosimetry testing, while still on the digital drawing board, is the focus of CFdesign and the UVCalc Module. Exploration of multiple design scenarios before building prototypes for physical testing equates to significant cost and time savings.

The Synergy of CFdesign and UVCalc

For many years, CFdesign, the leading design tool for Upfront CFD, has successfully been used to simulate the hydraulic performance through UV reactors. To build on existing capabilities and address the current needs of its customers, Blue Ridge Numerics realized the importance of a reliable solution for predicting UV fluence rates in CFdesign.

The knowledge and experience needed came from a new partnership with Dr. Jim Bolton, a recognized expert in the UV calculation field and developer of UVCalc, a trusted and tested UV calculation tool currently in its 3rd generation.

“As the use of UV light disinfection rapidly expands around the world, especially in emerging countries like China and India where infrastructure is aggressively being developed to support population demands, companies will be looking for cost effective solutions to help more accurately design their products,” said Ed Williams, CEO, Blue Ridge Numerics.

“Together CFdesign and UVCalc provide a holistic and accessible solution to help design engineers in water treatment and manufacturing industries more easily simulate and predict accurate reactor performance.”

How Does the CFdesign UVCalc Module Work?

Histogram shows the distribution of UV Dose using 200 flow partical traces
UVCalc, developed by Dr. Bolton, is a software program that allows an engineer to map out the fluence rate or irradiance distribution in a UV reactor. The combination of CFdesign and UVCalc together in the CFdesign UVCalc Module allows engineers to simulate the UV fluence rate in combination with the flow field, to ultimately predict the fluence or UV dose delivered.

Predicting the UV dose is vital, but even more important is studying and understanding the sensitivity of a reactor design with respect to changing conditions, such as piping connections, water transmittance, and flow rate.

“Validating a UV reactor’s performance for biodosimetry testing through digital “what if” scenarios helps significantly reduce the number of physical prototypes that a company needs to build and ensures a more accurate design upfront in the process,” said Dr. Jim Bolton, President, Bolton Photosciences, Inc. “CFdesign provides an easy to use software platform that addresses geometry and flow calculations at the design engineering level. The combination of UVCalc and CFdesign creates a synergistic design tool that provides the data and visualization needed to quickly determine the optimum UV reactor performance.”

UV News July 27, 2009: French WWTP installs LIT open channel UV-system

Recently O.E.I. France, distributor of LIT for the French market, installed a LIT open channel UV system in the South of France close to the Mediterranean Sea. The system is placed in the municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) of the village of Canet-en-Roussillon with 10,182 inhabitants. The capacity of the WWTP however is based on the summer season population of 66,000 inhabitants.

The LIT UV system is part of a classical urban WWTP water line. The design of the plant was based on an hourly peak flow of 21,000 m³ per day and treats on average 12,250 m³ per day. The municipal waste water is first treated by an activated sludge system including a clarifying process. Just before the discharge into the Têt River the effluent passes through the UV-system. The river then runs for 2 more kilometers before it reaches and flows into the Mediterranean Sea.

The installed LIT UV system consists out of 2 banks of 3 modules with twelve 350W lamps each. The lamps are submerged and placed parallel to the flow. The entire UV system is installed outdoor. All electrical cabinets are built in stainless steel, to withstand the Mediterranean climate conditions. Because in summer the outside temperature can reach up to 40°C, the cabinets are equipped with air conditioners. An Automatic Water Level Control System (AWLCS) including a channel slide gate assures a constant water level in the UV channel. Integrated monitoring and control of the water level is essential for the performance of horizontal open channel UV systems. The UV-sensor controls continuously the applied UV intensity. An Ethernet connection with Scada system facilitates remote logging and control of the entire UV system.

The installation of the LIT UV system in Canet-en-Roussillon assures the water quality to comply with the stringent European Bathing water directive. This compliance is an essential part of the annual review by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) and allows this popular touristic area to wave the blue flag on their beaches. The blue flag is an indication for sustainable development at beaches/marinas through strict criteria dealing with water quality, environmental education and information, environmental management, and safety and other services.

UV News July 20, 2009: Gray Water Recycling Systems 2009 "SEED" Award Winner for Water Conservation

Gray Water Filter Array and UV Disinfection System

Gray Water Filter Array and UV Disinfection System

The South Bay Business Environmental Coalition (SBBEC) has awarded their 2009 SEED Award for Water Conservation to Gray Water Recycling Systems, LLC.

The SEED Awards, SoCal Environmental Excellence Development, are given to Southern California businesses that have exhibited excellence in helping improve environmental sustainability and quality of life in the greater South Bay Area of Los Angeles.

Gray Water Recycling Systems was selected for extraordinary work in the area of Water Conservation and their significant and notable efforts to help reduce environmental footprints.

Ed Begley, Jr., spokesperson for Gray Water Recycling Systems, accomplished actor, avid long time environmentalist and star of the hit TV series Living With Ed stated, "This is the first of many awards for GWRS. The systems technology and operation is fantastic, it will have a huge impact on water conservation. I applaud the SBBEC for their foresight in the recognition of this urgently needed product."

The SBBEC is comprised of representatives from the private and public sectors of the South Bay area of Los Angeles County who sought a forum in 1991 to express common concerns for environmental issues and regulations impacting businesses and communities.

Gray Water Recycling Systems, LLC manufacturers gray water purification and disinfection systems for single and multi family homes, resorts, hotels and commercial use. Units capture water from shower, bath and laundry, then purify, disinfect, store and deliver that water to be safely reused for irrigation and other recycled water uses.

Full text: Gray Water Recycling Systems 2009 "SEED" Award Winner for Water Conservation

UV News July 17, 2009: Aquatic Centre goes UV
Coastreporter.net by Brent Richter

Sechelt – The lap pool at the Sechelt Aquatic Centre will soon have some ultra-cool technology to keep the pool ultra-clean without the current salty taste.

The Sunshine Coast Regional District (SCRD) announced Tuesday, July 14 that it would be installing an ultraviolet (UV) light disinfecting system this fall.

The new system, which is currently used in the leisure pool and hot tub, works by killing bacteria and viruses that live in the water and is extremely effective when combined with small amounts of chlorine, according the SCRD.

Bruce Bauman, area recreation manager for the SCRD, said there was several reasons for switching to UV from the salt system currently used for the lap pool, but its affordability and maintenance hassles with the salt system were key.

“The commercial salt system parts are becoming increasingly difficult to get a hold of and as a matter of fact, in some cases, are impossible to find,” he said.

Bauman said the SCRD is still finalizing the cost of installing the UV system, but the operating costs would be substantially lower. The SCRD has also applied for grant funding from the federal government that would cover one third of the total cost. The grant application is in the approval process now.

Public pools in B.C. must maintain a level of chlorine as disinfectant in the water, but the UV system will give the pool a fresh water feel to it, Bauman said.

“The UV system will allow us to keep the chlorine levels at an absolute minimum. It’s the same system that’s presently used in many drinking water systems,” he said.

The system is set to be installed during the annual two-week maintenance shut down of the pool from Aug. 22 to Sept. 7 and when it reopens, the pool will lose its distinctive salty taste.

“Really the only experience that [people] are going to find different is that the pool is not going to taste like the Georgia Strait,” Bauman said.

UV News July 13, 2009: CA community turns to UV for wastewater disinfection

AUBURN, CA — To meet regional water quality standards, the Auburn wastewater treatment plant is getting an upgrade that includes the installation of an ultraviolet disinfection system, a July 13 AuburnJournal story reported.

The new system will replace the plant’s current chlorine disinfection system, used to treat the water before it drains into a creek near Ophir.

According to Bernie Schroeder of the local public works agency, the community is getting a deal on the system. It was originally priced at $10 million, but due to the struggling construction climate, the system’s price has dropped by $2 million.

Schroeder said residents can expect that their monthly sewer rate, which is about $55, will stay the same, the story said. Construction is expected to begin in September.

UV News July 10, 2009: Cutting pool chlorine

A MODERN cleaning system has been brought in to cut the amount of chlorine in the pool at the Doncaster Dome leisure centre. Managers say the ultraviolet cleaner will make the pool one of the cleanest in the country.

It cleans almost a million litres of water every 90 minutes meaning the amount of chlorine needed is halved - making the pool more accessible for people who suffer from allergies and skin conditions resulting from exposure to chlorine and similar chemicals found in swimming pools.

The new system is more energy efficient. Terry Parker, head of facilities at The Dome, said: "The new UV system is already proving to be a success. We are using less chlorine now and so the Lagoons smell much fresher, and that has been noticed by both staff and customers. It also means the water is even more accessible to children and adults who may suffer from skin conditions."

The £32,000 unit is the latest improvement made at The Dome this year.

UV News July 8, 2009: Anglian Water choose UV as solution to Cryptosporidium

atg UV Disinfection System

atg UV disinfection system - effective against Cryptosporidium

In June 2008, a rabbit got into the wash water tank at the Pitsford Drinking Water Plant of Anglian Water, leading to contamination of the treatment works with Cryptosporidum, a chlorine resistant parasitic micro-organism.

The parasite was detected on June 24 and, following consultation with health and local authorities, a notice to boil drinking water was issued for more than 100,000 households and 250,000 people served by the plant. About 500,000 litres of bottled water were also distributed.

A decision to install UV led to seven systems – including two validated UV systems from atg UV Technology – being installed by the end of the weekend following the initial discovery. A week later, all water being produced was free from Cryptosporidium.

The UV systems are automatically wiped and lamp output is monitored using a specifically designed UV monitor camera. The power of the UV lamp is adjusted automatically to ensure the correct UV dose is delivered to the water. The units are capable of being controlled locally or remotely by SCADA. The system adjusts automatically for lamp ageing and changes in the transmittance of the water to deliver a constant UV dose.

The units were installed in line into a 24-inch main. The design avoids bends that would be detrimental to system performance. Lamps can be changed online and the automatic wipers maintain the optical path, ensuring optimum performance, protecting Anglian Water from future Cryptosporidium outbreaks.

UV News June 24, 2009: Aquionics InLine+ Closed Vessel UV Disinfection Systems Get UVDGM Validation For Drinking Water Use

Aquionics Medium Pressure UV System Installation

Aquionics' InLine+ medium pressure ultraviolet system

Aquionics' InLine+ series of UV water disinfection systems are now fully validated in accordance with the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM). The validation certifies the use of the systems for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) released by EPA in November 2006.

The testing was conducted by Carollo Engineers at its Portland, Oregon validation facility and covered a three-dimensional matrix of UV transmittance, flow and reduction equivalent dose, using both T1 and MS-2 phage test surrogates. Dose delivery equations were derived for all reactors that predict T1 and MS-2 RED as a function of flow, UV-T, UV sensor readings, and microbe UV sensitivity.

"We are delighted to have achieved this important validation as it confirms our position at the forefront of UV disinfection technology," comments Aquionics President Bill Decker. "From the time we supplied some of the very first UV drinking water disinfection units in the USA in 1987, we have been actively involved in providing communities with safe, reliable UV disinfection for drinking water and this latest validation continues our long tradition of investing in the industry. We are proud to be able to offer communities the choice of using our state-of-the-art UV disinfection systems, knowing that they meet the very latest and most stringent drinking water standards. I would also like to add that Aquionics products are no longer subject to any Cryptosporidium or Giardia Patent fees for UV disinfection applications worldwide."

Aquionics is part of the Fluid Technology Division of Halma p.l.c. (www.halma.com). Along with fellow Halma companies Hanovia Limited in the United Kingdom and Berson UV-techniek in the Netherlands, Aquionics is the world leader in closed vessel UV technology for progressive, non-chemical disinfection and microbiological control. The company's UV systems are used in a wide variety of applications including municipal water and wastewater treatment, high purity water treatment in the pharmaceutical, electronics and power generation industries, and also food and beverage processing, brewing, winemaking and aquaculture.

UV News June 24, 2009: Safety retrofit nearly complete for Cupertino civic center fountain
MercuryNews.com by Matt Wilson

The dormant civic center fountains outside Cupertino Community Hall and library could be splashing again in late July.

Installation of an ultraviolet lighting system to ward off potential parasites is scheduled to wrap up next month, according city officials.

The fountains have been mostly inactive since early 2008, after the Santa Clara County Public Health Department tested them for presence of a parasite called cryptosporidium that effects the intestinal tract and shut down the water display as a precautionary measure. The parasite is common in interactive water fountains.

While there was no evidence of the parasite, county officials concluded that all fountains that allow direct human and animal contact must be modified to treat the water with ultraviolet light to kill any potential parasites.

In December, the city council awarded a contract to Pacific Water Art Inc. to retrofit the fountains with the ultraviolet system. Ralph Qualls, director of public works, said that work is wrapping up on the fountains with the goal of turning the water back on sometime in late July.

City staff declined to elaborate further until the city council in July reviews a staff report on the progress and prognosis of the fountain retrofit and how it correlates with county regulations.

The rows of fountains, which shoot jets of water up a few feet from the ground, are a popular play area for children on hot summer days and after visits to the library.

According to the Centers for Disease Control, cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease that can cause severe intestinal tract distress.

The parasite is protected by a hard outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body for extended periods. The disease is usually spread through ingesting recreational water tainted with feces, usually from animals or children's diapers. The hard outer shell makes the parasite resistant to typical chlorine treatment, thus the need for the UV treatment system.

UV News June 3, 2009: BIO-UV to equip city of Geneva

Bio UV Medium Pressure System Installation

A BIO-UV installation - medium pressure ultraviolet system

Following an assessment, BIO-UV has been selected to provide all public swimming pools (a total of 7 establishments) managed by Geneva in Switzerland with equipment containing medium-pressure lamps.

Benoît Gilmann, CEO of BIO-UV, said: “We are delighted to have been chosen by the city of Geneva. With over 1,000 pools already equipped in Europe, of which 500 are in France, dechloramination by UV light is by far the most commonly used technique and is also to the complete satisfaction of the swimmers, staff and management of these establishments.”

The scientific research over the last 5 years, the French and international publications and the analysis campaign initiated by the French Ministry of Health and the DASS have all shown that, when using UV lamps, medium-pressure lamps have the most conclusive results on the reduction of trichloramines. These latter are a component of combined chlorine and one of the most harmful by-products to the health of swimmers and staff as well as a source of numerous public health problems.

Furthermore, it is now well recognised and proven that, when properly installed, UV lamps do not generate any additional by-products such as THM, and this includes medium-pressure lamps.

UV News June 1, 2009: Advanced Biotechnologies, Inc. (ABI) Adds UV-Inactivated Purified Whole Virus Product to Aid in Research of Human Influenza

ABI adds (H2N2) Purified Whole Virus, UV-Inactivated for use in H2N2 subtype-specific protein-based testing. Catalog # 10-126-000

Columbia, MD --(PR.com)-- Human Influenza A/2/Japan/305/57 (H2N2) Purified Whole Virus, UV-Inactivated was completely inactivated by ultraviolet light irradiation. The inactivation was validated by cell culture based assay and had no effect on the hemagglutinin titer by hemagglutination assay (HA) and retained viral morphology by TEM. The inactivated, purified human influenza A virus will be useful for any H2N2 subtype-specific protein-based testing.
Catalog # 10-276-000

Advanced Biotechnologies Inc. (ABI) www.abionline.com is a privately held biotechnology company specializing in the development, manufacture, and supply of critical products and services for the research and monitoring of infectious disease. ABI has been a integral partner for over 27 years to various Pharmaceutical, Laboratories, Diagnostic, and Research companies by using unparalleled manufacturing techniques to produce
large-scale in vitro virology products and services.

For more information on other inactivated
Influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2)
Contact Alicia Heazlitt
phone: 800-426-0764

UV News May 24, 2009: Plan to clean water with UV light wins business plan competition

A plan for cleaning wastewater with ultraviolet light won the $15,000 first prize in the annual Big Bang! Business Plan Competition at the UC Davis.

The funding will help the students complete a prototype of the novel technology, which will be tested first at UCD' wastewater treatment facility. The system has the potential to replace chlorine as a disinfectant in swimming pools and hot tubs.

"This was the toughest deliberation in the history of this competition," said Roger Akers, a Sacramento venture capitalist who estimates that he has evaluated some 10,000 business plans in his 30-year career. Akers was one of seven volunteer judges who determined the top Big Bang! winners.

The Big Bang! competition, founded in 2000 by students at the UCD Graduate School of Management, has become one of the best-known business plan competitions on the West Coast.

Akers Capital and DFJ Frontier were among the 16 Northern California venture capital firms, law practices and major firms that provided the prize money, coaching and volunteer judges for this year's Big Bang!

MBA students run the competition without any financial support from the university. This year's student co-chairs were Julia Barg and Adelina Ratner.

UltraV, the winning business concept, relies on technology developed by Bassam Younis, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at UCD. To bring his technology to market, Younis relied on the UCD Energy Efficiency Center to connect him with students in engineering and management. Those connections led to UltraV.

Elisabetta Lambertini, a Ph.D. student in engineering with a background in business, is chief technology officer of the incipient startup. MBA candidates Mananya Chansanchai, Yong Kim and James Bui are vice president of development, chief financial officer and vice president of sales and marketing, respectively.

According to Chansanchai, 75 percent of wastewater treatment plants around the country still disinfect water with chlorine, a toxic chemical that is dangerous to transport and store. The other 25 percent have adopted UV disinfection systems, but these systems use mercury lamps in direct contact with water. Because of their toxicity, mercury lamps are expensive to dispose of. Direct contact with water is another drawback, because the lamps become covered with algae and require frequent cleaning.

Younis' design uses xenon lamps that do not come into contact with water. Instead, the lamps pulse UV light at water as it circulates through an enclosed cylinder.

UltraV has an agreement to test the technology at the UCD wastewater treatment facility, which currently uses a mercury lamp UV disinfection system. The test will allow direct comparisons of the xenon and mercury systems.

The students applied for a $150,000 grant from the California Energy Commission to complete a prototype for the campus test. They also filed an application for a patent.

"This is an amazing opportunity," Chansanchai said after her team won the $15,000 Big Bang! prize. "We think we have a product that will make the world cleaner and healthier for our children."

UV News May 14, 2009: Construction begins on high tech water plant
San Francisco Examiner

By: Juliana Bunim

Mayor Gavin Newsom broke ground Thursday on what will be the largest ultraviolet water treatment plant in California. Using state-of-the-art UV disinfection technology, the $112 million Tesla Treatment Facility will treat water from the Hetch Hetchy system. It will also create hundreds of thousands of jobs for building and construction workers in San Joaquin and Stanislaus counties.

“Today we break ground on more than just an innovative major new water treatment plant,” said Mayor Newsom. “Today we begin a new partnership between the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley that will bring the latest technologies to protect our water supplies and create thousands of good jobs in San Joaquin and Stanislaus Counties at a time when they’re urgently needed.”

The new facility is slated for completion in 2011.

The plant is one of 85 projects within the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s Water System Improvement Program to repair, replace and retrofit aging pipelines, tunnels, reservoirs and other water-delivery facilities. Overall, these projects will generate about 28,000 jobs throughout the greater Bay Area and the Central Valley in the next five years.

UV News May 5, 2009: Crystal IS and Sanan Optoelectronics Announce Joint Development of Commercial UV-C LEDs

GREEN ISLAND, NY - Crystal IS, Inc., the world’s leading developer of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-C LEDs) and Sanan Optoelectronics Co. Ltd., the largest manufacturer of full color LEDs in the People’s Republic of China, today announced they had signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU). The MOU defines a joint development program, whose goal is to establish pilot manufacturing of LEDs operating in the UV-C part of the electromagnetic spectrum. During the term of this MOU, both parties intend to negotiate a long term business agreement covering high volume manufacturing, marketing and sales.

“Working with an experienced and dynamic company like Sanan Optoelectronics will significantly speed up the market introduction of UV-C LEDs,” said Crystal IS CEO Steven Berger. “Leveraging Sanan Optoelectonrics’ unique expertise in processing and packaging will allow us to focus on making the precision substrates required for efficient UV-C LEDs”

“The opportunity to partner with Crystal IS on a new LED technology will help Sanan Optoelectronics maintain its leadership position for the future,” said Sanan Optoelectronics CEO Simon Lin. “We expect downstream integrators of UV-based products will welcome an established supply train for this new product.

The developed UV-C LEDs will operate at the optimal germicidal wavelength, and are ideal for use in water and air sterilization products. Initial applications will include portable and residential point-of-use systems such as cleantech alternatives to bottled water and in-home counter-top systems. The technology roadmap also includes industrial and municipal applications, where long-lasting, energy-efficient LEDs are ideal replacements for existing mercury-based light sources.

UV News April 21, 2009: Degrémont Technologies-Ozonia supply UV reactors to drinking water plants
Filtration + Separation filtsep.com

Degrémont Technologies-Ozonia have supplied AQUARAY® UV reactors to two drinking water plants in Paris - the largest drinking water UV contract in Europe

Degrémont Technologies-Ozonia will equip the ozone drinking water treatment plants in Joinville and Orly, Paris with AQUARAY® H20 UV reactors, bringing them to full compliance with new regulations on pathogens and bromate restrictions and with a capacity to treat 2 x 300 000 m³/day of drinking water.

The UV reactors will act as a barrier in the disinfection process against pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria and parasites, and are particularly effective for chlorine-resistant microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, even at low doses.

The AQUARAY® H20 UV water disinfection reactors (20" Mono and 20" Duplex) are certified by the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water (DVGW) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and guarantee consistent compliance with the prescribed amount of 40mJ/cm² defined in conjunction with the Paris Water Management company. UV treatment solutions must also be approved by the French Ministry of Health when used in France to prevent parasitic risks. Currently, Degrémont Technologies-Ozonia is the only manufacturer to have obtained this approval.

UV News April 16, 2009: S. Oregon pool to go chlorine-free
KDRV.com by Tove Tupper

MEDFORD, Ore. - A Southern Oregon pool is the first in the area to install a new UV water purification system.

The Rogue Valley Family YMCA pool will no longer use chlorine.

"Chlorine is good, salin is better, and UV is best," says Rogue Valley Family YMCA Facility Director Robert Horton.

With the new system, water passes through a 2,500 UV watt light, designed to kill 99.9 percent of all germs, bacteria, and living organisms. It will stop itchy eyes and skin, and swimmers won't even need goggles.

Though the system cost $35,000 to install, the YMCA says it will save money in the long run.

"We can now save on day-to-day basic money, because we're not having to spend so much on chlorine and other chemicals," says Rogue Valley Family YMCA Executive Director Brad Russell.

It is also more environmentally friendly, and the UV treated water will help keep bathing suits last longer.

The World Health Organization says this water is almost clean enough to drink.

UV News March 30, 2009: Council awards bid for UV filter

The Bandon City Council has awarded a bid for providing an ultraviolet disinfection system for the city’s wastewater treatment plant.

At the council’s March meeting, the bid was awarded to Spectral Innovations Ltd., in the amount of $183,105.

The project involves upgrading the disinfection system at the wastewater treatment plant to comply with the Department of Environmental Quality discharge permit requirements, according to City Manager Matt Winkel.

In June 2007, the city entered into a Mutual Agreement and Order with DEQ, under which the city was to install the UV system by May 2009. The city bid the equipment purchase and received two bids, and awarded the bid to UV Doctor Systems LLC, the low bidder. However, after six months the company could not provide the required bonding, so its bid was rejected, Winkel explained.

The city subsequently re-bid the equipment, and received two bids from Siemens and Aquaionics. However, both bids were determined to be non-responsive, since the city’s existing UV channels are not a standard width (the original provider has since gone out of business), and neither manufacturer was willing to customize its system.

“City staff and the city engineer have been working with Spectral Innovations Ltd., who are willing to make a custom unit, the price of which is less than the previous low bid,” Winkel said. Since the installation will be done by an electrical contractor, and must be done during low flow periods (August to September), part of the cost for the $268,605 project will be paid this fiscal year, with the remaining funds included in next fiscal year’s budget, Winkel said.

The city has been granted an extension by DEQ, since additional efforts by the wastewater plant crew have resulted in the plant meeting its discharge requirements.

UV News March 17, 2009: Ultraviolet light could beat hospital TB

Installing ultraviolet lights in hospital wards and waiting rooms could stop tuberculosis spreading, a study shows.

Ultraviolet light could help beat TB on wards in hospitals, say scientists

Ultraviolet light could help beat TB on wards in hospitals, say scientists Photo: MARTIN POPE

The rays damage the bacteria's DNA so they cannot infect people, grow or divide and are already used in ambulances and operating theatres as a disinfectant.

Researchers found 35 per cent of guinea pigs given air straight from a ward of 69 TB patients became infected themselves - compared to 9.5 per cent of animals that breathed in the same oxygen that was first exposed to UV radiation.

They say TB bacteria - including drug-resistant strains - can be killed by hanging a shielded UV light from the ceiling with a fan to mix the air.

Dr Rod Escombe, of Imperial College London, said: "When people are crowded together in a hospital waiting room, it may take just one cough to infect several vulnerable patients.

"Our previous research showed that opening windows in a room is a simple way to reduce the risk of tuberculosis transmission, but this is climate-dependent - you can't open the windows in the intensive care ward of a Siberian hospital for example."

The rate of TB infection in the UK and other western countries is relatively low and people who are infected can be treated using antibiotics.

But people are more likely to die from the disease in developing countries like Peru because there are limited resources for isolating patients, diagnosing them quickly and starting effective treatment.

Dr Escombe, whose findings are published in PLoS (Public Library of Science) Medicine, said: "Also, the prevalence of drug-resistant TB is much higher in the developing world. Preventing infection is much easier and cheaper than treating a patient with tuberculosis."

Plans are already underway to install upper room UV lights in the chest clinic at St Mary's Hospital, London, which will be the first hospital to have them in the UK.

Dr Cath Noakes, of the University of Leeds' Faculty of Engineering, said: "The lights must be set high enough to ensure patients and health workers are not overexposed, but if the lights only treat air at that level, there will be little benefit.

"To be most effective, ventilation systems need to create a constant flow of treated air down to patient level, and potentially infected air up towards the lights."

UV News February 24, 2009: High Growth Reported for the UV LED Market

UV LEDs challenge the traditional $500M UV lamp business

UV business is a market of about $500 million with traditional UV lamp technology. Thanks to its compactness, lower cost of ownership and environmental friendly composition, it is expected that UV LED will replace traditional lamps and also will open the door to many new applications, especially portable ones.

In 2008, LEDs in the UV A/B spectrum were the dominant device in the sub-400nm applications. More than 90% of the UV LED market (outside of R&D) was covered by UV curing, counterfeit detection, medical and instrumentation applications requiring UV A/B sources. The remaining 10% was allocated to Air & Water purification with again a great portion of UV A-based LED source for photocatalytic air purification.

UVA LEDs dominate today but UVC LEDs will lead the market tomorrow

Key applications for UVA are UV curing, document/banknote verification, photocatalyst air purifier, medical phototherapy. Among those, the most dynamic and important UVA lamp market is the UV curing business where UV LED can definitely compete with traditional mercury lamps:

Market size is big ($120M) and with growth of about +10 % due to the advantage of UV curing technology over traditional technology (speed, green coating).

Many new players have emerged over the past 5 years at the system and LED packaging level

The power output available has greatly increased and several Watts/cm² will be available in 2009-2010.

There were high hopes about UVC applications (disinfection, purification market) two years ago but real applications are still missing due to significant technical and economic challenges for UV LEDs: power output, efficiency, lifetime and cost. Hence UVC players are now focusing on UVA

The first UVC LED applications are mostly for scientific analytical instruments. It is expected that the first large-scale sales for the disinfection market will appear in 2010 on existing markets and also new Point of Use or portable applications where compactness is a key issue.

Growth of the UVC market is strongly connected to the availability of AlN bulk substrates that could theoretically multiply by 100 the LED chip optical power output. Several players expect to provide AlN wafers in volume at the end of 2009. Hence, time to market for UVC applications based on AlN would probably be in 2011-2012.

We also observe a strong trend where AlN companies are now extending their activities to UV LEDs to capture more added-value along the supply-chain. According to the high potential UVA LED business in UV curing, augmented by the growing market demand in water & air disinfection, we forecast a cumulated $250M UV LED market in 2015.

UV News February 18, 2009: Herschel Bathed In UV To Ensure Cleanliness

Herschel Bathed In UVThe Herschel space telescope has completed what could be called the "blue phase" of its pre-launch preparations for Arianespace's next Ariane 5 mission, with the spacecraft's mirror inspected for cleanliness using ultraviolet light.

This activity, which is part of verifications to ensure the 3.5-meter-diameter mirror is free of particles after it was cleaned earlier this month, occurred in the S1B facility at Europe's Spaceport, where Herschel is being readied for an April 16 liftoff from French Guiana. As the largest space telescope of its kind ever built, Herschel will investigate how stars and galaxies are formed, as well as provide information on how they continue to evolve. Its large mirror was built by joining 12 pieces into one single element, which was ground, lapped and polished to the correct shape — and then coated with a reflective aluminum layer.

Herschel is part of the European Space Agency's space science program, and it will be launched by the next Ariane 5 with another of the agency's spacecraft — Planck, which will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background to provide new data on how the universe began. The Herschel spacecraft arrived at the Spaceport in early February, and is to be joined by Planck, which is en-route for a landing this evening (February 18) at the country's Rochambeau International Airport near the capital city of Cayenne. Ariane 5's April 16 flight will deploy Herschel and Planck into very elliptical orbits, enabling both spacecraft to follow transfer trajectories for their voyage to the second Lagrange point (L2) of the Sun-Earth system.

UV News January 28, 2009: Bottle disinfection — without the byproducts
WaterTechOnline.com Volume 32, Issue 1 By Marc J. Scanlon

UV can be used for primary disinfection, or as a backup for other methods.

Until now ozone disinfection has been a popular method of disinfecting bottled water. While ozone has a number of advantages, it is coming under increasing scrutiny because of concerns about disinfection byproducts — particularly bromate, a suspected carcinogen — which can form as a result of the ozonation process.

Bromide ions occur naturally in many spring waters and are completely harmless. However, if their levels are high, ozone can facilitate their conversion into bromate.

An alternative method gaining acceptance across the whole spectrum of food and beverage industries is ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. UV kills all known spoilage microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, yeasts and molds (and their spores) without producing any undesirable disinfection byproducts. It is a low-maintenance, environmentally friendly technology which eliminates the need for chemical treatment while ensuring very high levels of disinfection.

How UV disinfection works
UV is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. The specific portion of the UV spectrum between 185 and 400 nanometers (nm), also known as UV-C, has a strong germicidal effect, with peak effectiveness at 265 nm. At these wavelengths UV kills microorganisms by penetrating their cell membranes and destroying the DNA, making them unable to reproduce and effectively killing them.

A typical UV disinfection system consists of a UV lamp housed in a protective quartz sleeve which is mounted within a cylindrical stainless steel chamber. The water to be treated enters at one end and passes along the entire length of the chamber before exiting at the other end. Liquids that can be effectively treated with UV include spring, surface or municipal water; filtered process water; and clear viscous sugar syrups and effluent. Feed liquids for UV should be sufficiently low in dissolved or suspended particles that they allow effective penetration of the UV light.

There are two main types of UV technology, based on the type of UV lamps used: low pressure and medium pressure. Low-pressure lamps have a monochromatic UV output (limited to a single wavelength at 254 nm), whereas medium-pressure lamps have a polychromatic UV output (with an output between 185 and 400 nm).

Generally speaking, low-pressure systems are best suited for small, intermittent flow applications, while medium-pressure technology is better suited to higher flow rates.

UV disinfection’s advantages over alternative methods include the fact that, unlike chemical biocides, UV does not introduce toxins, residues or byproducts into the process and does not alter the taste, odor or pH of the water.

UV treatment can be used for primary water disinfection or as a backup for other water purification methods such as carbon filtration, reverse osmosis or pasteurization.

As UV has no residual effect, its best position in a treatment system is immediately prior to the point of use. This ensures that incoming microbiological contaminants are destroyed and there will be a minimal chance of post-treatment contamination.

UV on a bottling line
Incoming water supplies: Although natural springs and municipal water supplies are normally free from harmful or pathogenic microorganisms, this should not be assumed. Surface water from wells, rivers or lakes — particularly in livestock farming areas — can be contaminated and should be disinfected.

CIP (Clean-in-Place) rinse water: It is essential that the CIP final rinse water used to flush out foreign matter and disinfecting solutions be microbiologically safe. Fully automated UV disinfection systems can be integrated with CIP rinse cycles to ensure final rinse water does not reintroduce microbiological contaminants. Medium-pressure lamps are ideal for this application because of their mechanical strength, meaning they are not affected by any sudden changes in the temperature of the CIP water, such as when hot (80 degree C, or 176 F) liquid is instantly followed by cold (10 degrees C, or 50 F).

Filter disinfection: Stored reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtrate can be a breeding ground for bacteria. UV is an effective way of disinfecting both stored RO and GAC filtered water and has been used in the process industries for many years.

Dechlorination: GAC filters are also often used to dechlorinate process water, removing the “off” flavors often associated with chlorine disinfection. Placing UV systems ahead of GAC filters used for dechlorination improves the performance of the filters (by reducing filter biofouling), resulting in longer carbon runs and lower operating costs.

Other plant UV applications
Surface disinfection systems are used to reduce microbial counts on all kinds of packaging, including glass and plastic bottles, cans, lids and foils. By irradiating the surfaces with UV prior to filling, spoilage organisms are eliminated, extending the shelf life of the product and reducing the risk of contamination.

Sugar syrups used as flavorings can be a prime breeding ground for microorganisms. Although syrups with a very high sugar content do not support microbial growth, any dormant spores may become active after the syrup has been diluted. Treating the syrup and dilution water with UV prior to use will ensure any dormant microorganisms are deactivated.

Tank head space disinfection: UV systems can be used to disinfect displacement air for pressuring tanks or pipelines holding perishable fluids. Storage tanks are particularly susceptible to bacterial colonization and contamination by airborne spores. To prevent this, immersible UV treatment systems have been designed to fit in the tank head air space and disinfect the air present.

Simple to maintain
Meeting the increasingly rigorous hygiene standards required in the production of bottled water is becoming more of a challenge, particularly with growing concerns about byproducts such as bromate. Customers are also demanding a product that has not been treated with chemicals.

For those producers seeking to improve the quality of the end product, UV is an economic, realistic option. It is a well-established method of disinfecting drinking water throughout the world and is widely used for high-purity applications such as pharmaceutical processing and semiconductor manufacturing, where water of the highest quality is required.

UV disinfection systems are easy to install, with minimum disruption to the plant. They need very little maintenance, the only requirement being replacement of the UV lamps every 8,000 hours, depending on use. This is a simple operation that takes only a few minutes and can be carried out by the general maintenance staff.

UV News January 14, 2009: WaterHealth Lands $10M for UV Water Purification

The Series D funding will help the Irvine, Calif.-based company expand sales of its combination filtration and ultraviolet light water purification technology. Water purification is a growing business both in developed countries and the third world.

WaterHealth International Inc., has a deal for poor rural villages around the world – we'll help you borrow money to buy our water purification systems, and then we'll stick around to make sure they're run properly.

The Irvine, Calif.-based company announced this week it has raised $10 million in a series D round led by previous investors Dow Venture Capital and SAIL Venture Partners.

That brings total investment for WaterHealth to about $26 million, CEO Tralance Addy said Wednesday. The company hopes to raise another $10 million by March.

WaterHealth is among a number of companies, from startups to giants like Bechtel Corp., General Electric and Siemens, that are focusing on the looming worldwide water crisis.

An estimated 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to clean drinking water, and the United Nations has warned that population growth and water depletion could lead to water shortages for 2.7 billion people by 2030.

UV News January 8, 2009: Degrémont Technologies-Ozonia launches powerful ultraviolet reactor for drinking water treatment

Degrémont Technologies-Ozonia won a big success, at the Pollutec exhibition in France, with the presentation of its last UV reactor: AQUARAY® H2O 36’’.

AQUARAY® UV disinfection systems offer the better compromise between the higher efficiency and the smaller footprint with low or medium pressure UV reactors.

To answer to the market demands for very large drinking water plants, Degrémont Technologies- Ozonia introduces AQUARAY® H20 36’’(DN900), a powerful UV reactor with an up to 7 000 m3/h capacity, environmentally safe and recognized as effective for a wide range of bacteria, viruses and parasites like Cryptosporidium Parvum or Giardia Lamblia.

The AQUARAY® H2O 36’’ inline cross flow reactor uses 10 high density medium pressure lamps to offer compact footprint and easy integration on new or existent water treatment lines.

Engineered with the advanced CFD (Computerized Fluid Modelling) software to determine optimum lamp spacing and optimize its efficiency, the system provides consistent and reliable disinfection.

UV treatment allows maintaining high quality standards of the water delivered, reduces the risk of waterborne diseases and complies with new regulations of pathogens and bromate limits:

• The AQUARAY® H2O reactors are used as a final barrier to disinfect water by inactivating pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria and parasites. UV lights are particularly effective for chlorine resistant microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, even at low doses.

• UV treatment allows respecting the new maximal limit of bromate concentrations lowed to 10 μg/l (against 25 μg/l) from 25 December 2008.

In addition, the AQUARAY® H20 is under the process of being validated for the disinfection of drinking water and for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

By anticipating municipal needs with a powerful and environmentally safe UV reactor, Degrémont Technologies–Ozonia secures its leadership position and confirms the advanced technologies of its solutions.

UV News January 6, 2009: Calgon Carbon Awarded San Francisco UV Contract

Calgon Carbon Corporation (NYSE: CCC) announced today that it has been awarded a contract by PCL Civil Constructors, Inc. to supply Sentinel(R) UV Disinfection Systems (UV systems) at the City of San Francisco's Tesla Portal drinking water plant. The contract is valued at $5.0 million.

Twelve Sentinel(R) Chevron 48 reactors (Chevron 48), scheduled to be installed beginning in early 2010, will treat up to 320 million gallons of drinking water per day. The Chevron 48, which is Calgon Carbon's latest addition to its Sentinel(R) product line, can treat up to 45 million gallons of water per day. The company's ongoing product advancements support San Francisco's goal to provide safe drinking water to its customers and to comply with federal regulations for the control of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and other waterborne organisms.

Earlier in 2008, the company was awarded contracts to supply a total of 14 Sentinel(R) UV Disinfection Systems for Singapore's Johor River Water Treatment Works and Indianapolis' White River Facility. When installation of those systems is complete, they will have the capability of treating more than 350 million gallons of drinking water per day.

Commenting on this announcement, Jim Sullivan, Calgon Carbon's vice president of UV Technologies said, "We are pleased that the City of San Francisco selected our newest Sentinel(R) design to meet their disinfection needs. The commercialization of the Chevron 48 exemplifies our successful product development efforts in UV technology as well as our strong position in the growing, drinking water disinfection market worldwide."

UV News December 12, 2008: Sharper Image Making A Comeback At CES
CRN.com ChannelWeb, by Andrew R Hickey

Sharper Image, the struggling consumer electronics retailer that met its demise after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in February (2008), is planning a comeback at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas next month.
In an e-mail sent to CES attendees on Friday, Sharper Image said it will launch more than 20 new products that will be available in a "wide range of retail stores in 2009."

"Please join us for the much-anticipated launch of the 'New Era of Sharper Image,'" the e-mail stated.

"Our all new electronics line brings back to the marketplace the best things that the Sharper Image brand represents - innovation, premium performance and unique designs," the e-mail continued. "We'll be relaunching with a range of wireless audio, bedside audio, portable audio and speaker systems products. "

Earlier this year, San Francisco-based Sharper Image filed for bankruptcy after experiencing declining sales since 2004. The company recorded net losses in fiscal 2005 to 2007, which continued into 2008. Dwindling consumer spending and negative publicity surrounding its Ionic Breeze air purifiers were integral to the bankruptcy filing.

At its peak, Sharper Image had 186 stores nationwide, while also selling through a monthly catalog and a Web site. As of June 1, 2008 96 Sharper Image stores had completed liquidation and were closed. The remaining stores and assets were bought out by Hilco Merchant Resources and Gordon Brothers Group. Since then, all remaining stores have been shuttered.

On Friday, hinting at its pending attempt at a comeback, Sharper Image's Web site simply read: "Sorry to keep you in the dark. But, there's something big coming. Soon. Stay tuned."

UV News December 8, 2008: Disinfecting Marine Vessel Ballast Water With UV

To assist operators of cruise ships, tankers, semi-submersibles, jack-up rigs and other large ocean-going vessels to meet the International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO’s) impending ballast water discharge requirements, UV disinfection specialist Hanovia has partnered with three of the world’s leading systems integrators to provide validated, on-board water treatment systems that are easy to install and use.

All ocean-going vessels take on water to provide ballast and stability. It is usually taken on in coastal port areas and transported to the next port of call – sometimes on the other side of the world – where it may be discharged. Much of this water contains marine microorganisms such as zooplankton, algae, bacteria and the eggs, cysts and larvae of various species. While many die in transit, some survive and invade the local marine environment, out-competing native species and causing serious damage to native ecosystems. Environmental damage caused by ballast water is now regarded as one of the greatest threats to the world’s oceans.

Two methods have been proposed to combat this problem: onboard ballast water treatment and ballast water exchange. As the name suggests, ballast water treatment involves treatment of ballast water prior to discharge, while ballast water exchange involves ballasting and de-ballasting in the open ocean before coming into ports and coastal waters. This open ocean exchange is not an ideal solution as it is potentially unsafe and can destabilise the vessel. Also, because existing ballast water exchange systems do not completely drain the tanks, sediment and a residual amount of water can remain, leaving behind non-indigenous species which could be discharged in port later.

As well as being unsafe, open ocean ballast water exchange is difficult to regulate and monitor, so many operators simply do not do it. Because of this the IMO is setting much tougher standards to control ballast water practices and has published two Conventions to tackle the problem. The first is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), dealing with waste and sewage discharge from ships (ratified in 2003), and the second is the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention, to control the spread of alien species (due for ratification in 2009). Under the BWM Convention, vessels will have to treat all ballast water so that discharges contain less than 10 viable organisms per cubic metre equal to or greater in size than 50 µm in size.

To help operators confront these requirements Hanovia, in tandem with the leading systems integrators, has devised a UV disinfection system that, in conjunction with a filter, kills or removes virtually all microorganisms present in ballast water. The combined system comprises a high intensity, medium pressure UV disinfection unit and an automatic back-flush filter. After passing through the filter to remove larger organisms, the ballast water flows into the UV chamber to destroy smaller organisms. During de-ballasting, the water bypasses the filter but again flows through the UV chamber where further irradiation kills any remaining microorganisms.

The entire system has a very small footprint and can be mounted at any angle, making it easy to install even in the confined spaces of a vessel’s equipment room. Once installed, the system requires little effort to operate by the crew. It can be controlled by a master PLC unit which can be integrated into the vessel’s machinery automation network. The UV unit is equipped with automatic wipers to keep the UV lamps clean, and the only maintenance required by the crew is the replacement of the UV lamps once a year and occasional preventative maintenance procedures.

UV News November 25, 2008: Crystal IS, Inc. Wins $800,000 Department of Defense Grant to Develop UV-LEDs

Crystal IS, Inc., the world's leading manufacturer of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) based on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate technology, today announced it will receive an $800,000 appropriation from the U.S. Department of Defense to advance development of large AlN crystals for effective deep ultraviolet sources.

"Our unique technology allows us to manufacture UV LEDs with unsurpassed performance at truly commercially viable costs," said Crystal IS CEO Steven Berger. "This grant serves as yet another validation of using AlN-based UV-LEDs to enable cleaner water and air for consumer, industrial and government customers."

As part of the program, Crystal IS will partner with the Army Research Laboratory in Adelphi, MD as well as the Electro-Optics Center (EOC) at Penn State University. The program will leverage the recent development of large single-crystal AlN substrates into robust semiconductor sources of deep ultraviolet light as well as other high power, high temperature applications of great importance to the military.

AlN has been demonstrated to be superior for deep UV light-emitting applications. The primary applications of UV-LEDs are as long-lasting, energy efficient, water and air disinfection devices. Crystal IS Inc is developing its deep UV-LEDs at 265nm, the peak germicidal wavelength.

UV News November 3, 2008: LUKOIL Upgrades Environmental Complex At Perm Refinery

Vagit Alekperov, President of OAO LUKOIL, and Grigory Rapota, Plenipotentiary of the RF President in the Volga Federal District, participated in the festive ceremony held in Perm on October 31 to honor the 50th anniversary of OOO “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez”.

As part of the ceremony held at the refinery, newly constructed and renovated facilities of the environmental complex, which incorporates facilities for mechanical, chemical and biochemical treatment, mechanical and sorption filters, ultraviolet disinfection units and a surplus sludge dehydration unit, were presented.

According to LUKOIL , the complex is designed for deep purificaiton of the industrial sewage generated by “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez” and dozens of other plants and enterprises which form the Osentsovsk industrial hub located in Perm. The complex capacity is 68 thousand cu.m. of purified industrial sewage per day.

Cutting-edge technologies and equipment allow to remove hydrocarbons, nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing pollutants, thus making the quality of the purified industrial sewage compliant with fishery requirements. Application of filters with coal sorbents prevents discharge of over 40 tons of petroleum products per annum into surface water bodies. Application of the ultraviolet disinfection method instead of classic chemical treating methods to purify the sewage from pathogenic microorganisms is a characteristic feature of the complex. Application of new technologies for industrial sewage purification also allows to cut river water consumption of the enterprise by 10 %.

Since 2006, over RUR 500 million has been invested into construction of new facilities and reconstruction of the existing ones at OOO “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez” environmental complex.

UV News October 22, 2008: Municipality adding UV disinfection facility
PiqueNewsMagazine.com /by Claire Piech

Construction on an ultra violet (UV) disinfection facility is expected to begin this fall, as part of the municipality’s $12 million upgrades to Whistler’s 21 Mile Creek water system.

Council is expected to award the construction contract within the next month, and the Resort Municipality of Whistler has budgeted $1.7 million for the UV system, which has been on the books since 2006, according to capital projects manager John Nelson.

“We still chlorinate both our surface source and our ground water source, but the UV is just an added level of treatment that is necessary on surface sources,” Nelson explained.

The 900 square foot UV facility will be built next to the Whistler cemetery and will be accessed via the cemetery’s road off Alta Lake Road.

Residents can expect some disruption while construction of the facility and road repaving are underway, but the cemetery will be open for internment services and visitors, said an RMOW press release.

The municipality will also make sure burial area boundaries and the scattering garden are both marked and protected throughout the construction period. And contractors will stop building during any burial services.

Currently, the 21 Mile Creek water is disinfected by chlorination and piped to the village under Alta Lake.

The UV disinfection facility is part of four upgrades to Whistler’s 21 Mile Creek water system, which provides about 75 per cent of the town’s water supply. The upgrades are intended to improve the safety and capacity of the municipality’s water system, said RMOW staff.

The municipality is tapping into a new groundwater source at Rainbow Park that will connect to the village’s water grid through a pipeline along Lorimer Road. Both the pipeline installation and the pump station construction are underway. Each is expected to cost $5.2 million, said Nelson.

An upgrade to the 21 Mile Aquifer Wells is also scheduled to take place between 2010 and 2012.

Both the Alpine Meadows and Emerald Estates neighbourhoods have their own water systems, and the Benchlands is serviced by the Blackcomb system, which is connected to the main system.

The RMOW is also looking to develop a new groundwater source at Function Junction to supply the athletes’ village.

Whistler’s water is continually checked by the municipality, which spends $1.19 million per year on water operations. The sampling and testing program involves 33 different sample points where the water is tested for bacteriological contamination like E. coli and coliform.

In 2007, E. coli and coliform tests showed there were no bacteria in the water.

UV News October 1, 2008: Larne sewage works leads the way with UV technology

REGIONAL Development Minister Conor Murphy officially opened Larne's new £14m wastewater treatment works last Wednesday.

The plant is the first to use ultra violet light technology - new eco-friendly technology which removes bacteria from the treatment process without the use of chemical disinfectants, leading to improvements in water quality in the area.

The new NI Water site caters for a population of 33,000, and will provide a state of the art facility ensuring the level of treatment meets European standards.

Mr Murphy said: "This investment will ensure that this facility supports the growth and ongoing development within the area, while protecting the local environment. Protection of the lough's eco-system is particularly important in this designated Area of Special Scientific Interest. The use of this technology will ensure that NI Water is doing all it can to safeguard the wetland environment, the shellfish and the bird wildlife.

"Investment of approximately £1million per day is taking place in upgrading the water and sewerage system infrastructure. This facility is just one example of the scale of investment required to provide cleaner beaches and rivers, meet European standards, respond to increasing demand and provide the region with a modern service."

Chris Mellor, Chairman and Chief Executive of NI Water added: "NI Water is committed to investing in projects that will deliver the best innovative solutions and benefit the local economy, community and environment. Extensive research was conducted into sourcing environmentally friendly technology with a proven track record that could meet the standards set by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency for this area.

"Using UV technology is better for the environment as there are less chemicals used in the treatment processes and it also allows an increase in the capacity of water which can be treated, reducing the likelihood of flooding in the area.

"I would like to pay tribute to the expertise of the team involved in this scheme and congratulate our project managers and contractors on achieving our compliance standard on schedule."

UV News September 24, 2008: Bottled water to be given to people affected by aqueduct leak

WAWARSING - The New York City Department of Environmental Protection will cover the cost of bottled water for residents of the U.S. Route 209/Smith Road area who have been affected by leaks in the city's Delaware Aqueduct, town Supervisor Edward Jennings announced on Wednesday.

Jennings said the water will be provided by the Leisure Time Bottled Water Co. in Monticello and will go to 34 families. The Ulster County Health Department has taken water samples from the Route 209/Smith Road area and discovered high levels of E. coli, especially in dug wells. Jennings said he, in turn, negotiated an agreement with New York City DEP Regional Manager Ira Stern for the city to reimburse the town for the cost of the bottled water until ultraviolet treatment systems can be installed in each affected home. The ultraviolet systems, which eliminate bacteria in water, also will be paid for by New York City.

UV News September 19, 2008: Germicidal UVC Lights Improve Clinical Pregnancy Rates For IVF Lab, New Study Finds

A seven and a half-year study conducted in the In Vitro Fertilization Cleanroom Laboratory of the Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network found that the use of ultraviolet C or "UVC" lights installed in the HVAC system had a clinically significant impact on clinical pregnancy rates (CPR). In presenting the findings at the annual meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Kathryn C. Worrilow, Ph.D. reported that the + beta and CPR increased by an average of 17.8% and 18.2%, respectively, following 10 of the 13 change-outs of the Steril-Aire UVC EmittersT over the test period.

Clinical success in an IVF lab is critically dependent upon the quality of the ambient air, which in turn, is directly dependent upon the HVAC system. The study led by Dr. Worrilow tracked three key components in the HVAC system - particulate filters, gas phase filters and UVC lights - and the timing of their replacement - to determine whether these individual components affected markers of preimplantation embryogenesis and clinical pregnancy rates.

According to the findings, "There were no statistically significant differences associated with the replacement of the particulate or gas phase filters in Testing Quarters 1-48. In contrast, immediately following 10 of the 13 UVC Emitter change-outs, the + beta hCG and clinical pregnancy rates increased 17.8% and 18.2%, respectively."

The study goes on to say: "UVC energy will destroy 90 - 99% of airborne microbial contaminants. By targeting the DNA and RNA of microorganisms, UVC degrades and abates the proliferation of airborne and surface embryotoxic organics. Of equal significance to the developing embryo is the suggested impact of UVC irradiation on the degradation of VOCs. Our work has demonstrated that VOC levels as low as 2.2 ppb can be embryotoxic to the embryo cultured in vitro."

The authors conclude: "Although the use of UVC light represents a departure from the standard HVAC design used in many IVF laboratories, the current study suggests that the use of UVC germicidal technology in the HVAC system serving the IVF laboratory may play a critical role in providing optimal ambient air towards improved clinical outcomes. The current study demonstrated that a clinically significant relationship existed between the replacement of the UVC Emitters and the associated clinical pregnancy rates."

Robert Scheir, Ph.D., president of Steril-Aire, Inc., states: "This new data provides scientific evidence of the germicidal benefits of UVC technology. The potential benefits are far-reaching: not only for the potential to improve CPR in IVF clinics, but also for enhancing infection control in hospitals and healthcare environments, and for maintaining better ambient air in medical and pharmaceutical manufacturing clean rooms."

Scheir adds: "The study also confirms the importance of adequate UVC output and changeout frequency in achieving desired results. The study used high-output Steril-Aire UVC lamps with a changeout schedule of 6-9 months. In the 3 of 13 UVC replacement test quarters that did not result in improved clinical pregnancy rates, outside factors may have played a role in the outcomes. As long as the lamps were functioning properly and were changed on schedule, results were consistently positive. The message to anyone using UVC is that it is critical to select a device with adequate output and to replace the device consistently at required intervals to maintain that output. Otherwise, germicidal effectiveness will be diminished."

UV News September 1, 2008: UV Light Solutions for Emerging Ballast Water Treatment Systems
WCPonline.com, by Jon McClean

High-power, compact UV systems are now being used to prevent the transit across the globe of a wide variety of organisms in ships’ ballast water. Ballast water is taken on board in ports of call to maintain stability when the vessel is not laden and discharged as the vessel becomes laden with cargo.

This small system discharge is often released thousands of miles from the port of embarkation and relocates microscopic plants, mussels, crabs and recently, the fish pathogen viral hemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)1 far from their native range.

UV systems are being incorporated in packages that use separation technology to prepare the ballast water to be disinfected using UV light prior to discharge. The UV systems are compact, use high power polychromatic lamps, have automatic wiping mechanisms and are generally configured with lamps at right angles to the flow. This orientation saves space and eliminates bends, which are detrimental to flow profiles before and after the UV chambers.

Medium-pressure lamps are most often used in this application, as their compact size permits a small treatment footprint, allowing skid mounting and safe lamp removal.

The problem
More than 46,0002 commercial vessels—tankers, cruise liners, bulk carriers, RO/RO ferries, container ships and barges— travel across the oceans carrying cargo and passengers for transport, leisure and commerce. Between three to four billion metric tons of ballast water move across the oceans annually.

Approximately 75 percent of these vessels are involved in intercontinental trade. The asymmetric nature of this trade means that occasionally container vessels arrive laden into US ports from China and embark empty, ballasted with water taken on board in the US.

Likewise, coal and iron ore carriers arrive empty into Australian or South American ports fully ballasted with water. And they discharge this ballast water prior to taking cargo on board. Ballast water is also often used as a trim aid in port when loading or unloading cargo.

It is estimated that 7,000 species are transported in ships ballast water. The majority of these species do not survive the ballasting/de-ballasting cycle, as the environment within the ballast tanks is hostile and not conducive to permit colonies of organisms to survive. Those that do survive, however, are usually hardy. And they frequently out-compete indigenous species, surviving to establish a reproducing population.

Invasive threat
Over 100 non-native species of marine organisms are known to have been introduced globally by ballast water. While some appear benign, others are a threat to biodiversity, fisheries and aquaculture.

The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) views the threat of invasion by these species as “the greatest immediate threat to most coastal state ecosystems.” Some introduced species severely deplete native populations or deprive them of food. Others form colonies that can damage
other existing fauna.

Introduced toxic dinoflagellates cause red tides and algal blooms that can affect or even kill shellfish, fish and sea birds. When eaten by humans, these contaminated shellfish can cause paralysis or even fatality. In southern Australia and along the west coast of the US, the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida is rapidly
invading new areas, displacing the native seabed communities. Shipments of the European oyster Ostrea edulis were brought from Washington to France to supplement a low native stock. The virus Bonamia ostrea accompanied these shipments and ended up destroying the remaining native stock of the European oyster in France.

In the Black Sea, filter-feeding North American jellyfish (Mnemiopsis leidyi) have on occasion reached densities of two lbs of biomass per nine cubic ft. This culprit has depleted native zooplankton stocks to such an extent that it contributed to the collapse of entire Black Sea commercial fisheries in the 1990’s.
Salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) once used as packing material for Atlantic oysters (Crassostrea virginica), has been introduced into Oregon. The cordgrass continues to spread along the Oregon coast, taking over mudflats and disrupting bird migrations. The fish pathogen VHS was reported in the Great Lakes
area in 20036. The rapid transfer of the virus through all of the waterways frequented by vessels dumping ballast is no coincidence.

The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) was banned for importation and aquaculture in the US in the late 1980s; however, the crab was discovered in San Francisco Bay in 1994. Introduction by ballast water is the probable source. The crab burrows into riverbanks, dykes and levees causing erosion and siltation.

The solution
The United Nations’ International Maritime Organization (IMO) has a number of initiatives underway at this time to address the issue of non-indigenous species transit and invasion and to address pollution of the ocean and fresh water areas. The Ballast Water Management (BWM) convention was published in 2004 and has a target implementation date of 2009. MARPOL 73/78 (International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships) covers the discharge of sewage at sea and came into force in 2003.

Two methods are proposed to mitigate the threat of species transfer: either ballast water treatment (BWT) or ballast water exchange (BWE). BWE is available only to those non-coastal vessels that can exchange ballast water mid-ocean. This is a time-consuming and potentially hazardous exercise, as it involves the vessel stopping or slowing considerably and exposes hull structures to stress. A number of ship designers are now developing ‘no stop’ BWE systems or vessel designs that eliminate the need for ballast water altogether. For BWE regimes, a 95 percent volumetric exchange of ballast water is required. This is
measured as three times the volume of the ballast tank exchange. From the date of implementation (2009),
ships will be required to treat ballast water discharge to achieve less than 100 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL of intestinal enterococci and less than 250CFU/100mL of Escherichia coli. Vibrio cholerae (O1,O139) should be less than one CFU/100mL or less than one CFU/per one gram (wet weight) of
zooplankton samples. MARPOL 73/78 has been in force since 2003 and by 2006, 113 countries or
75 percent of active tonnage had signed the convention. In 2016, all vessels will be required to treat their ballast water to comply with these microbial levels.

In April 2008, the US House of Representatives approved regulations requiring all saltwater ships entering US ports to treat their ballast water by 2016. The bill (HR 2830) sets a more demanding disinfection standard than the IMO protocol and requires that the number of organisms greater than 50 microns in
minimum dimension be reduced to fewer than 10 living organisms per cubic meter of water in the discharged ballast water. Chemical or biocide-based methods of disinfecting ballast water are unattractive from a number of perspectives. The proximity of bulk chemicals poses handling and storage risk to the ships
crew and often a de-chlorination process is required to ensure that no active substance or residual is discharged. A number of innovative suppliers are enhancing the production of hydroxyl radicals with the exposure of an accelerant such as titanium dioxide to UV light. A dedicated joint group of experts on the
scientific aspects of marine environmental protection (GESAMP)7 now has a ballast water technical work group (Work Group 34) in place.

The focus of Work Group 34 is to determine what risk is posed by the discharge of a variety of active substances. Hydroxyl species are a novel addition to their usual list of chemical residuals to investigate. These reactive species are very short lived and the ballast water has a high hydroxyl demand.

How does UV work?
The ballast water is prepared for UV disinfection using a variety of filters or cyclonic separators. The systems are usually skid mounted and automated; the UV systems have automatic wiping and the filters automatic backwashing. UV works by permanently damaging the DNA of all living organisms. The damaged (or dimerized) DNA is no longer able to support normal cell function and the organism is rendered non viable.
The sizing of the UV system is determined by: (a) flow rate; (b) transmittance of the fluid to ultraviolet light and (c) the dose requirement. The method is non- intrusive and does not alter the chemistry, color or physical property of the ballast water.

Different organisms have demonstrated varied resistance to UV. A growing number of organisms are being found to be highly resistant to chlorine and many of these emerging pathogens are effectively disinfected using UV. UV dose is expressed in mJ cm-2. Most of the leading UV manufacturers use CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to predict the performance of the UV systems. Working in partnership with BWT system providers, they use a variety of validation techniques to determine the actual UV system performance in the BWT process. Preparation of ballast water is very important, as color,
suspended solids and particulates would render the UV ineffective.

CFD modeling expertise and accuracy has advanced significantly in the last five years. And leading UV system manufacturers such as Sollux, Trojan and ATG use proprietary software models to integrate flow and radiation profiles.

Flow profile
The flow profile is produced from the chamber geometry, flow rate and particular turbulence model selected.
The radiation profile is developed from inputs such as water quality, lamp type (power, germicidal efficiency, spectral output, arc length) and the transmittance and dimension of the quartz sleeve.

Proprietary CFD software simulates both flow and radiation profiles. Once a 3-D model of the chamber is built, it is populated with a grid or mesh that comprises thousands of small cubes. Points of interest (such as at a bend) or the quartz sleeve surface or around the wiper mechanism use a higher resolution mesh, while other areas within the reactor use a coarse mesh.

Once the mesh is produced, hundreds of thousands of virtual particles are ‘fired’ through the chamber.
Each particle has several variables of interest associated with it and the particles are ‘harvested’ after the reactor. Discrete phase modeling produces delivered dose, head loss and other chamber specific parameters.

System analysis
For system approval, on-shore and ship-based process validation is conducted to ensure that the system is capable of performing as required. Fouling of quartz sleeves can occur and prevent the UV light from penetrating into the water. Iron is often present in ballast/bilge water, as the marine environment is aggressive and materials coming into contact with it need to be carefully selected. In addition to iron, ballast water can often contain oils and lubricants and has a high oxygen demand. Effective wipers are critical to the UV system performance. BWT systems are now also being evaluated as part of the US Coast Guard STEP8 program in the US and are undergoing IMO-type approval through the UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) in cooperation with Lloyd’s Register.

Much damage has been done by the inadvertent transit through ballast discharge of a great many nuisance
species. However, it does seem that this area is finally getting the attention it deserves.

UV systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as part of small system ballast water treatment packages. Performance of the UV system depends critically on the ability of the upstream filters and separators to adequately treat the ballast water. Ratification and implementation of the IMO ballast water management
convention will soon make it a criminal act to discharge untreated ballast water. Neither the very international nature of the shipping business, nor the intense competitive pressures caused by high
and rising fuel costs will be acceptable reasons for non-compliance. Nor will the absence of a global regulation for such small systems be acceptable.

UV News August, 2008: Bottled water to be given to people affected by aqueduct leak

Trojan Technologies, a leading manufacturer of advanced water treatment solutions, has acquired R-Can Environmental Inc. R-Can is a leading manufacturer of ultraviolet equipment in residential water disinfection applications. The combined entity will operate as a strategic business unit of Trojan Technologies. "We are combining two of the strongest residential teams in advanced water disinfection treatment?this is exciting for us," says R-Can president. "Our greatest asset is our skilled group of water treatment professionals and strong customer base, while Trojan brings to the table advanced research and development capabilities; the combination will result in the best of technology and the highest quality customer support." According to Trojan President "We are facing increasing demand for residential water treatment due to escalating water quality issues and concerns. This newly combined residential business, with over 50 years of UV water treatment experience, will position us to expertly meet those demands." He added that Trojan has chosen one of their senior leaders, Ron Braun to lead this business unit. R-Can will operate under the Trojan Technologies name in its current location in Guelph, Ontario and will be focusing on their strong experience in the Residential business. Trojan's current residential business will be fully integrated into Guelph operations. Trojan Technologies is a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation.



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