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UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.

UV Articles 2011

UV News November 2, 2011: SETi prepares high-volume manufacturing of UV LEDs

Sensor Electronic Technology Inc (SETi) of Columbia, SC, USA has put in motion an expansion plan to both expand its R&D efforts and to transition its production line to high-volume manufacturing, making it what it claims is the first high-volume supplier of ultraviolet (UV) LEDs shorter than 365nm, initially scaling to supply quantities of more than 100 million LEDs per year.

SETi says it was first to market with short-wavelength UV LEDs in 2004 and has since supplier a portfolio of LEDs and high-power LED lamps from 240nm to 355nm.

SETi currently operates a 15,000ft2 ISO9001-certified facility, where it runs a vertically integrated R&D and small-volume production line with epitaxial growth, chip fab, packaging and test and analysis, plus a prototyping line for integration of its LEDs into complete systems.

The first phase of the expansion, which is currently underway, involves retrofitting this facility to 20,000ft2 and converting it into the firm’s R&D center. The expansion in this facility will be focused predominantly around additional cleanroom space for chip fab and device packaging, where new mask designs, processing techniques and packaging solutions will be developed to further improve the performance of SETi’s UVTOP and UVClean devices and to ensure that SETi maintains its position in the UV LED market.

SETi recently closed on the purchase of a new property, where it will focus its high-volume manufacturing lines. The firm’s growth plans include expansion of this new facility to 130,000ft2. Initially, it will house SETi’s proprietary production metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactors, where the company will focus on the high-volume manufacturing of its migration-enhanced MOCVD (MEMOCVD) process that will be used for the scale up in volume of its UV LEDs and a new Engineering Center for the development of new applications and the production of custom solutions.

UV News November 2, 2011: Xylem's WEDECO Spektron UV Systems launched With Widest Validation For Drinking Water Norms, Meeting Needs Of Small And Mid-Sized Drinking Water Plants

Xylem Inc., the global water solutions business that this week spun off from ITT Corporation, has announced advanced features to its WEDECO Spektron ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection product range. The upgrades to the closed vessel UV reactors are aimed at the municipal drinking water market for flows of a few cubic meters per hour (m³/h) to more than 1,000 m³/h.

All Spektron units will be rolled out as they earn DVGW/ ÖNORM certification, and CE and UL registration. In addition, a range of units will also be validated under full compliance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM 2006). The entire series is expected to be fully validated by mid-2012.

"The Spektron series is designed to meet all common disinfection requirements including 3-log Cryptosporidum reduction," said Mike Newberry, product manager for Xylem's WEDECO UV systems. "And since it will be evaluated to all norms, it will fit any legal requirements for drinking water."

The new Spektron units will be equipped with WEDECO's latest ECORAY UV lamp and ballast technology. In combination with the option of variable power output control, they feature excellent energy efficiency under all operating conditions. While in dim mode, the ECORAY lamps realize energy savings of up to 20 per cent of the energy and use up to 80 per cent less mercury than the previous lamp generation. With respect to sustainability, the UV lamp's power savings translate to a carbon dioxide reduction of up to 500 kg per lamp over the lamp's life cycle.

In addition, now all of the Spektron units can be ordered with an automatic wiping system and will have improved hydraulics conditions inside the reactor. Whilst the smaller units will continue to be equipped with WEDECO's CrossMix module, the larger units will have the newly developed OptiCone installed. This patent pending flow diverter ensures optimal hydraulic conditions inside the reactor under all inlet piping configurations. The excellent performance of the units will be continuously monitored by an ÖNORM compliant UV sensor that fulfils reference sensor requirements.

UV News September 27, 2011: Deep-UV LED maker SETi nominated for South Carolina Manufacturer of the Year Award

Deep-UV LED maker SETi nominated for South Carolina Manufacturer of the Year Award

Deep ultraviolet (UV) LED maker Sensor Electronic Technology Inc (SETi) of Columbia, SC, USA has been recognized by the South Carolina Chamber of Commerce as one of 12 outstanding manufacturers to be put forward for the South Carolina Manufacturer of the Year Award.

SETi has pioneered the development and manufacturing of semiconductor materials using aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaN) and supplies UV LEDs using these materials.

UV LEDs can be used in applications from sensing and detection of harmful gases and airborne diseases to disinfection of water, surfaces and air in markets including medical, industrial, military and consumer.

Over the past few years, SETi’s UV LED products have been transferred from research to production and the firm now operates production procedures certified to ISO9001 standards. Despite the economic climate, SETi’s business has more than doubled in the last two years and the company is now planning a large expansion to further ramp its UV LED production capacity.

UV News August 5, 2011: New water system zaps bugs with ultraviolet light

TRACY, Calif. (AP) - A high-tech water-treatment system is making some of Northern California's cleanest water even cleaner.

The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission on Tuesday unveiled its Tesla Water Treatment Facility, which is the largest of its kind in California and third largest in North America.

The $114 million facility in Tracy uses ultraviolet light to sterilize drinking water and prevent gastro-intestinal illness caused by harmful micro-organisms.

The chemical-free system will benefit the San Francisco water agency's 2.5 million Bay Area customers who receive their water from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir.

Hetch Hetchy water is already very clean because of the lack of livestock and people near the reservoir.

The San Francisco Chronicle reports that Los Angeles, Las Vegas and other cities are planning to launch their own ultraviolet treatment facilities.

UV News July 25, 2011: Record Performance of UVC LED's for Germicidal Disinfection by Crystal IS
Press Release Source: Crystal IS, Inc. On Monday July 25, 2011

GREEN ISLAND, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- Crystal IS, Inc., the leading developer of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC LEDs), has today announced devices demonstrating world record performance at the optimal germicidal wavelength, 260nm. In recently-published results, Crystal IS has revealed a 9.2 mW device operating at 100mA continuous wave current, (see Grandusky et al., Appl. Phys. Express 4 (2011). Total power of 100mW in pulsed mode was likewise observed.

“We are proud of this record result and of the unprecedented progress this past year towards high efficiency, long life UVC LEDs,” commented Leo Schowalter, founder and CTO of Crystal IS.

“This unsurpassed performance opens up new opportunities for germicidal irradiation applications,” commented Steven Berger, CEO of Crystal IS. “Clean and safe water, air, and surfaces to meet the needs of today’s world is our goal. We are leading the world in this technology and are currently sampling devices with the foremost market leaders across multiple industries.”

The UVC LEDs developed by Crystal IS operate at the optimal germicidal wavelength, and their proven efficacy, coupled with low power requirements, small size, and longer lifespan, make the diodes ideal for use in water and air sterilization products. Initial applications will include residential and office point-of-use systems such as water coolers and counter-top systems providing alternatives to bottled water. Hospital air for reduced infectious disease spread as well as safety of our food supply are additional application areas being explored.

UV News July 7, 2011: Lasers to kill viruses and improve DVDs

Ultraviolet semiconductor diode lasers are widely used in data processing, information storage and biology. However, their applications have been limited by their size, cost and power.

The current generation of ultraviolet lasers is based on a material called gallium nitride. However, Jianlin Liu, a professor of electrical engineering at the Riverside Bourns College of Engineering, University of California, together with his colleagues, has made a breakthrough in zinc oxide nanowire waveguide lasers. These come in smaller sizes, lower costs, higher powers and shorter wavelengths. The results of Liu’s studies have been published in the July issue of Nature Nanotechnology.

Until now, zinc oxide nanowires couldn’t be used in real world light emission applications because of the lack of a p-type, or positive type, material required by all semiconductors. Liu solved the problem by doping the zinc oxide nanowires with antimony, a metalloid element, to create the p-type material. The p-type zinc oxide nanowires were connected with n-type, or negative type, zinc oxide material to form what is called a p-n junction diode. Powered by a battery, a highly directional laser light emits only from the ends of the nanowires.

The discovery could have a wide-range of impacts. Zinc oxide nanowire lasers could be used to read and process much denser data on storage media such as DVDs because the ultraviolet has shorter wavelength than other lights. A DVD storing two hours of music could now store four or six hours of music. The ultra-small laser light beam from a nanowire laser can also penetrate a living cell, or excite its function from a bad cell to a good cell. The light could also be used to purify drinking water.

For photonics, the ultraviolet light could provide super-fast data processing and transmission. Reliable small ultraviolet semiconductor diode lasers may help develop ultraviolet wireless communication technology, which is potentially better than state-of-the-art infrared communication technologies used in various electronic information systems. It’s a work in progress.

UV News April 7, 2011: Bond for $22M UV system moves forward; Light is used to treat drinking water, By Bob Caylor of The News-Sentinel

Meeting new federal standards for treating drinking water will cost Fort Wayne an estimated $22.1 million – but by financing that work with a bond issue, City Utilities expects to pay the cost through existing water rates.

The Fort Wayne Board of Public Works on Wednesday authorized that bond issue, which still must be approved by City Council and by the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission.

City Utilities officials had some good news to share about the ultraviolet-light disinfection system, mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Matthew Wirtz, City Utilities' deputy director of engineering, said that through discussions with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management, the city has been able to dial down the power requirements for UV lights in the system. Instead of costing perhaps $200,000 to run the lights, it's more likely to cost $25,000 to $50,000 a year to power those lights.

Over time, Wirtz said, the city hopes to be able to cut back significantly on chemicals it now uses to disinfect water from the St. Joseph River before it's piped throughout the city. Those savings might be as much as $100,000 to $150,000 a year.

April 2014 is the deadline set by the EPA for the city to have UV disinfection in place. Engineering and final design work for the system is supposed to be done later this year. Construction would begin in 2013, and the system would begin operating that year.

UV News March 11, 2011: Upper Gwynedd improving creek health, saving cash with UV system
The Mercury, by Bradley Schlegel, Journal Register News Service

As part of its 2011 budget deliberations, township officials allocated approximately $1.2 million to implement an Ultra Violet Disinfection System at the Upper Gwynedd Township’s Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Instead of chlorine, the new system will utilize several light bulbs to clean the water, according to Commissioner Tom Duffy. He said the procedure will eliminate any potential chlorine discharges into the Wissahickon Creek.

The fully automated system will increase plant efficiency, according to township Manager Len Perrone.

“We’re improving the process,” Duffy said. “The plant’s neighbors will not notice a change. The goal is to enhance the environment by improving the health of the stream.” ...

UV News March 10, 2011: Utility Begins Work on 240 mgd UV Disinfection Facility, by David J. Opferman, Marco Aieta, Ramesh Kashinkunti and Jason Fleming

UV Disinfection Facility
Artist rendering of an aerial view of the proposed UV disinfection facility looking north.

The Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) has a long history of leadership and innovation in the drinking water industry. To continue that tradition, embrace advanced treatment technology and improve public health, a significant advancement is currently underway at GCWW's Richard Miller Treatment Plant (RMTP), where a new ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system is being constructed.

GCWW supplies approximately 1 billion gallons of water per year to more than 1 million consumers in the greater Cincinnati area. The majority of this water is produced at the RMTP, which has a treatment capacity of 240 mgd and treats an average flow of 126 mgd. The RMTP is a conventional surface water treatment plant that draws its raw water from the Ohio River. Its treatment process train includes conventional pretreatment (rapid mixing, flocculation and lamella plate clarification), sand filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption contactors. The GAC contactors use 11.5 feet of granular activated carbon and provide 15 minutes of empty bed contact time. Chlorination applied after the GAC contactors meets primary disinfection requirements for Giardia and virus inactivation, but is ineffective against Cryptosporidium - a chlorine-resistant pathogen now regulated under the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR).

The finished water produced by the RMTP is of excellent quality and meets or exceeds all current drinking water standards (including LT2ESWTR requirements for Cryptosporidium). However, the plant's Ohio River water source has the potential to be affected by municipal wastewater discharges, combined and sanitary sewer overflows, and urban and agricultural storm water runoff. Given these factors, additional treatment requirements for Cryptosporidium or other emerging pathogens may be required in the future.

To address these treatment challenges, GCWW is constructing a 240-mgd, post-GAC UV disinfection facility at RMTP. This facility will provide an additional disinfection barrier and enhanced protection against a wide range of microbial contaminants from the Ohio River watershed. It will also ensure compliance with the LT2ESWTR, regardless of bin classification and related treatment requirements. (Under the rule, filtered water systems will be classified in one of four treatment categories (bins) based on the amount of Cryptosporidium in their water supply).

Consistent with GCWW's history of proactive treatment improvements, the UV system is being voluntarily installed as a non-regulatory driven initiative.

Planning and Design

Planning and design of the UV Disinfection Facility Project was executed in three phases. GCWW began evaluating UV process upgrades in 2000 with the Phase 1 UV Feasibility Study, which assessed UV disinfection effectiveness for emerging pathogens in a bench-scale collimated beam study. Sequential treatment using UV and free chlorine was evaluated for multiple target pathogens, including Cryptosporidium oocysts, Bacillus subtilis spores, E. coli, MS2 coliphages, PRD1 phage, adenovirus, mycobacterium, and Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Other investigations included chlorinated DBP formation after UV treatment and the effect of UV disinfection on microbial regrowth in the distribution system.

The Phase 2 Pre-Design Study, completed in 2004, identified post-GAC as the optimal UV process train location, and analyzed its hydraulic grade line profile. Field tests and hydraulic measurements determined that approximately 6 feet of head was available between the GAC contactors and the finished water clearwells. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was conducted on various reactor combinations to predict headloss through the reactors and associated upstream/downstream piping. The analysis determined that sufficient hydraulic head was available to install either medium-pressure or low-pressure high-output UV systems within the existing process train without pumping.

For Phase 3, GCWW looked to partner with a consultant team to complete the planning and design of the UV facility. In 2006, CDM, in partnership with Carollo Engineers, was awarded a contract to provide engineering planning, design and construction services for the new UV disinfection facility. The team also included RA Consultants, a local Cincinnati civil engineering consulting firm. During Phase 3, GCWW and the CDM-Carollo team conducted process engineering, preliminary design, a UV/AOP taste and odor study, a UV/AOP pilot study, UV equipment procurement and detailed design of the UV facility and related improvements.

Designing a state-of-the-art UV disinfection facility, and ensuring its reliability and flexibility, was possible thanks to the successful collaborative relationship between CDM, Carollo, RA Consultants and GCWW.

Early in the project, the CDM-Carollo team used CFD modeling and UV system simulation software (UVCAT) to evaluate and optimize UV system design concepts. The analysis considered the enhanced disinfection of emerging pathogens and the application of UV light with hydrogen peroxide for the reduction of organic micro-pollutants. The analysis provided a clear understanding of the key design issues impacting successful implementation of the project, including reactor size, number of reactors, disinfection target and variations in UV transmittance.

The team also used the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) public health risk assessment model to quantify the project's public health benefits. Results indicated that implementing UV disinfection at the RMTP would reduce public health risks associated with Cryptosporidium to less than 1 infection per 100,000 persons. This result is expected to save $700,000 to $1 million per year in public health avoidance costs.

The UV equipment was selected during the design phase of the project using a competitive equipment procurement effort. Equipment procurement documents (drawing and specifications) for both low-pressure and medium-pressure systems were developed. A life cycle-based selection approach was used to compare the bids received, taking into account capital costs and life-cycle costs, including those associated with power and lamp replacement. Based on the evaluation, medium-pressure UV reactors from Calgon Carbon Corp. were selected. Procuring the equipment during the design phase allowed the design of the UV facility to be tailored to the selected medium-pressure technology.

The selected design consists of eight Calgon Carbon Sentinel® 48" Chevron reactors. Each UV reactor train will be rated at 35 mgd, for a total firm capacity of 245 mgd with seven duty trains and one standby train. Each reactor will house five 20-kilowatt (kW) medium-pressure lamps. The Sentinel® system will provide UV disinfection of a wide range of waterborne pathogens, including Cryptosporidium and Giardia, using high-intensity, medium-pressure lamp technology. The system is designed for a disinfection target of 99.99% Cryptosporidium inactivation-the highest disinfection credit allowed under federal drinking water regulations.

The UV system will be housed in a new building that provides approximately 19,600 square feet of space across two levels. The reactors will be housed on the lower level, with electrical and other support spaces situated on the upper level. The building will be initially outfitted with eight UV trains, but it is sized to accommodate two additional future trains, for a total of 10 trains.

To help offset the increased energy demand of the UV treatment process, GCWW will also install solar panels on the roof of the UV Facility. The system will include 160 solar panels capable of generating approximately 45 kW of electricity, which, in combination with other GCWW solar installations, is enough to meet the majority of the power needed by the UV system under average daily flow conditions. Renewable Energy Credits provided by the local electric supplier will further help offset the operational costs of the UV facility.

In the future, GCWW will have the option to supplement this enhanced disinfection process with a UV/peroxide advanced oxidation process (AOP) for removal of emerging chemical contaminants, as well as taste- and odor-causing compounds. The UV facility was designed with features that will facilitate a conversion to the AOP process if this is ever needed.

Phase 3 was completed in July 2010, when bids for the construction of the UV facility were received. A $20.3 million construction contract was awarded to Adams Robinson Enterprises of Dayton, OH.


Phase 4 of the project is ongoing, and involves the construction, start-up and commissioning of the UV facility. Construction began in September 2010 and is anticipated to be complete in December 2012. The CDM-Carollo team is providing engineering services during construction. When completed, this UV disinfection system will be one of the largest UV disinfection drinking water facilities in North America, and it will significantly improve public health protection for Cincinnati's water supply customers.

UV News January 26, 2011: Australia's Largest UV Disinfection System

Trojan Technologies and exclusive distributor in Australia, Aquatec-Maxcon PTY Ltd., have been selected by the Eastern Tertiary Alliance to provide the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system for the Eastern Treatment Plant Tertiary Upgrade Project in Melbourne, Australia.

Trojan will be supplying seven closed vessel (in-pipe) UV reactors equipped with revolutionary TrojanUV Solo Lamp™ Technology. The UV system will disinfect average and peak tertiary treated effluent flows of 380 and 700 million liters (101 and 187 million gallons) per day respectively, making it the largest UV installation in Australia.

The objective of the upgrade project is to significantly improve the quality of treated water at the plant. This will further reduce the impact associated with the current discharge quality on the receiving marine environment Boags Rocks, near Gunnamatta Beach, as well as produce a high quality recycled water resource which can be used for a broader range of non-potable recycling applications.

These include residential third-pipe schemes (e.g. toilet flushing, garden watering, car washing), watering public gardens, open areas and sports grounds, and irrigating food crops.

“This is the kind of environmental solution we’re proud to be part of; one that will have immediate positive impact on aquatic life and recreational waters,” says Marv DeVries, president, Trojan Technologies.

“We’re proud to have our new Solo Lamp™ selected and stand out as the disinfection technology of choice.”

The Owner, Melbourne Water, had specific requirements for this project, all of which were met by the successful team of Trojan and Aquatec-Maxcon. These included:

• An energy efficient solution with the lowest UV lamp count
• A sustainable water treatment solution with reduced carbon emissions
• Local sales and service support personnel from a highly reputable manufacturer
• A state-of-the-art system that would undergo industry best practice validation and meet the delivery times set out by the project team

“Trojan is a company driven by innovation. Our flexible, customer-centered approach combined with Aquatec-Maxcon’s comprehensive local input enabled us to provide Melbourne Water with this leading-edge solution,” says Jennifer Muller, director, municipal markets, Trojan Technologies.

“Further recognizing that this would be the largest UV installation in Australia, this project was of paramount importance to Trojan in demonstrating our global leadership and strong commitment to addressing water scarcity issues around the world.”



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