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UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.

UV Articles 2010

UV News December 7, 2010: Crystal IS to develop UV LEDs for water sterilisation

New York-based ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED) developer Crystal IS has been awarded $5m (£3m) by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop efficient LEDs operating below 275nm for use in water-sterilisation applications.

’DARPA selected us for this award based upon the performance of our existing 265nm LEDs that leverage our proprietary aluminium nitride (AlN) substrate technology,’ said Dr Steven Berger, chief executive officer at Crystal IS. ’With the help provided by DARPA, we believe we will accelerate the development cycle and bring bright, efficient, and long-lifetime UV LEDs to market sooner.’

The development will take place at Crystal IS’s facility in Green Island, New York, and will run in parallel with the company’s effort to produce large-diameter AlN substrates.

’To make the project as successful as possible we have assembled a group of expert collaborators,’ said Dr Leo Schowalter, chief technical officer and founder of Crystal IS. ’These include industrial and university partners and a co-operative research agreement with the US Army Research Laboratory.’

Earlier in the year, the company demonstrated for the first time that devices with a wavelength of 250nm could be used to replace widely used mercury-based disinfection lamps.

Initial applications of the company’s products will include residential and office point-of-use systems such as water coolers and counter-top systems providing alternatives to bottled water. The company also believes that the technology could be deployed in industrial and municipal purification, where long-lasting, energy-efficient LEDs could also replace existing mercury-based light sources.

Last year, the company signed an agreement with Sanan Optoelectronics, the largest manufacturer of full-colour LEDs in China, to establish a pilot manufacturing line for building LEDs operating in the UV-C part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

UV News December 5, 2010: Winchester to break ground on wastewater plant

WINCHESTER, KY (AP) - A central Kentucky city is preparing to break ground on a $28 million wastewater treatment plant as part of a deal with environmental regulators.

Winchester Municipal Utilities has operated under a consent decree with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency since November 2006. Among the many mandates, the EPA is requiring the utility to eliminate 27 recurring sanitary sewer overflows.

Utility general manager Mike Flynn told The Winchester Sun that, to date, the company has addressed six of the 27, with another 13 to be eliminated when the new plant comes online.

Once complete, sewage from the southern half of the utility's wastewater service area will drain into a new pump station. The wastewater will be sanitized through an ultraviolet process and discharged into the Kentucky River.

UV News December 3, 2010: Calgon Carbon Corporation's Ultraviolet Technologies Division And Hyde Marine, Inc., Receive ISO 9001:2008 Certification

Calgon Carbon Corporation's Ultraviolet Technologies (UVT) Division and its wholly owned subsidiary, Hyde Marine, Inc., announced recently a milestone achievement in becoming certified by the ISO 9001:2008 Management System. The UVT Division received the ISO 9001:2008 accreditation from the registrar Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and the ANAB National Accreditation Board.

The certification of compliance with ISO 9001:2008 recognizes that the policies, practices, and procedures of our UVT Division ensure consistent quality in the products and services we provide to our customers. The certification applies to the management system for the design, development, manufacture, delivery, installation, warranty support, and aftermarket parts and service for ultraviolet (UV) water treatment and ballast water treatment (BWT) systems.

In commenting on the registration certificate, James A. Sullivan, Calgon Carbon's vice president, Americas Operations said, "The achievement of ISO:9001:2008 certification reflects Calgon Carbon's continuous effort to achieve superior UV product quality and reliability for our customers. The certification demonstrates our commitment to quality and customer satisfaction in the design, manufacture, and distribution of UV water treatment and ballast water treatment systems."

Calgon Carbon's UVT Division is known for its leading edge application of UV disinfection and UV oxidation technologies for drinking water, wastewater, groundwater, and water re-use. The company developed an economical process using UV to inactivate Cryptosporidium and similar pathogens in surface water, rendering them harmless to humans. The UVT Division also introduced one of the first advanced UV oxidation processes to remediate contaminated groundwater and it currently has over 300 UV oxidation installations worldwide.

Hyde Marine, a recent addition to Calgon Carbon's UV Technologies Division, is a global market leader in the growing Ballast Water Treatment market, having sold more than 70 Type Approved systems to date. The Hyde GUARDIAN unit received International Maritime Organization (IMO) Type Approval in April 2009 and was the first BWT System accepted into the U.S. Coast Guard's Shipboard Technology Evaluation Program (STEP) program. The Hyde GUARDIAN system is chemical free, using filtration and ultraviolet disinfection to treat ships' ballast water to prevent the spread of invasive species from port to port.

Calgon Carbon Corporation, headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a global leader in services and solutions for making water and air safer and cleaner.

UV News November 29, 2010: SETI’s UV LEDs Complete Space Qualification

Sensor Electronic Technology Inc. (SETI), together with Stanford University and National Security Technologies of Livermore, Calif., has demonstrated extreme environmental robustness and radiation hardness of its UVTOP deep ultraviolet LEDs.

Deep UV LEDs with peak emission wavelength of 255 nm have passed stringent space qualifications for large temperature variations and mechanical shocks with 27 cycles of 100K temperature cycles and 14g rms random mechanical vibrations. The forward voltage, emission spectra, and optical output power exhibited no significant changes after these harsh environmental tests.

The UVTOP LEDs have been successfully tested against the requirements for deep space exploration such as the Europa Jupiter System Mission, where they will be subject not only to severe thermal and mechanical shocks, but also high levels of radiation. Under irradiation up to 2x1012 protons/cm2, the LEDs demonstrated extreme radiation hardness.

UV LEDs have so far have exhibited high operational lifetimes in excess of 26,000 hours in nitrogen atmosphere, and 25,000 hours in vacuum, without significant power drop or spectral shift.

This extreme testing demonstrates the optical, electrical, and mechanical robustness of the UVTOP LEDs is suitable for many space and terrestrial applications where conventional UV light sources are simply too fragile.

Solar-blind P-i-N photodiodes with a peak responsivity matching the UVTOP LEDs at 255 nm were also manufactured by SETI and tested to the same stringent space qualifications. These detectors also exhibited extreme radiation hardness and retained 50 percent responsivity up to 3x1012 protons/cm² fluence.

UV News November 4, 2010: Greater Cincinnati Water Works breaks ground on new UV system

CINCINNATI — The Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) held a groundbreaking ceremony today at the Richard Miller Treatment Plant for its new ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system, according to a press release.

Project managers representing the collaborative partnership between GCWW, CDM, Carollo Engineers and RA Consultants were in attendance.

Once completed, the UV disinfection facility at the Richard Miller Treatment Plant will be the sixth largest UV disinfection drinking water facility under construction or operation in North America, the release stated.

Eight Calgon Carbon Sentinel® 48” Chevron UV reactors are scheduled to be delivered to GCWW in 2012 and will have the capacity to treat up to 240 million gallons of drinking water per day.

GCWW initiated this project as a non-regulatory mandated initiative to proactively improve, through UV disinfection, drinking water quality and to better protect the public from microbial contaminants in the Ohio River, according to the release.

UV News November 2, 2010: UV Light Nearly Doubles Vacuum's Effectiveness in Reducing Carpet Microbes
Infectioncontroltoday.com / Ultraviolet Germicidal Light

New research suggests that the addition of ultraviolet light to the brushing and suction of a vacuum cleaner can almost double the removal of potentially infectious microorganisms from a carpet's surface when compared to vacuuming alone.

Researchers say the findings suggest that incorporating the germicidal properties of UV light into vacuuming might have promise in reducing allergens and pathogens from carpets, as well.

"What this tells us is there is a commercial vacuum with UV technology that's effective at reducing surface microbes. This has promise for public health, but we need more data," says Timothy Buckley, associate professor and chair of environmental health sciences at Ohio State University and senior author of the study. "Carpets are notorious as a source for exposure to a lot of bad stuff, including chemicals, allergens and microbes. We need tools that are effective and practical to reduce the associated public health risk. This vacuum technology appears to be a step in the right direction."

The research appears online in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.

For this study, Buckley and colleagues tested a commercially available upright vacuum cleaner, evaluating separately and in combination the standard beater-bar, or rotating brush, as well as a lamp that emits germicidal radiation.

UV-C light with a wavelength of 253.7 nanometers has been studied extensively for its disinfection properties in water, air and food and on a variety of surfaces. This is the first study of its effects on carpet surfaces.

The Ohio State research group selected multiple 3-by-3-foot sections of carpeting of different types from three settings: a commercial tight-loop carpet in a university conference room, and medium Berber carpet with longer, dense loops in a common room of an apartment complex and a single-family home.

Researchers collected samples from each carpet section using contact plates that were pressed onto the flooring to lift microbes from the carpet surfaces. They collected samples from various locations on each test site to obtain a representative sample of the species present on the carpets.

After sampling, the plates were incubated for 24 hours in a lab and the number of colonies was counted. The plates contained growth media particularly suited for fungi commonly found in indoor environments, including Penicillium and Zygomycetes.

Each treatment was tested separately by collecting multiple samples from each 3-by-3-foot section before and after treatment: vacuuming alone, the application of UV-C light alone, or a combination of UV-C light and vacuuming. In each case, the carpets were vacuumed at a speed of 1.8 feet per second for two minutes.

Overall, vacuuming alone reduced microbes by 78 percent, UV-C light alone produced a 60 percent reduction in microbes, and the combination of beater-bar vacuuming and UV-C light reduced microbes on the carpet surfaces by 87 percent. When looking at the microbe quantities, the researchers found that, on average, vacuuming alone removed 7.3 colony-forming units of microbes per contact plate and the UV-C light removed 6.6 colony-forming units per plate. The combination of UV-C light and vacuuming yielded the largest reduction in colony-forming units: 13 per plate.

"We concluded that the combined UV-C-equipped vacuum produced approximately the sum of the individual effects, and therefore the UV-C was responsible for an approximate doubling of the vacuum cleaner's effectiveness in reducing the surface-bound microbial load," Buckley said.

Surfaces in residential settings, and especially carpets, are seen as potentially posing health risks because they are reservoirs for the accumulation of a variety of contaminants. Those most susceptible to infection, including the elderly, asthmatics, the very young and people with compromised immune systems, might be at particular risk because they spend most of their time indoors, Buckley noted.

"The best next step would be to test this UV-C vacuum technology in some environments that are high risk, where we could sample for specific pathogens," Buckley said. "The home environment would be particularly important, because that's where people spend the lion's share of their time and are likely to be in close contact with carpet."

Most natural UV-C rays from the sun are absorbed in the atmosphere, but long-term exposure to artificial UV-C sources can cause skin and eye damage. The vacuum has been engineered to prevent exposure to harmful radiation from the UV-C lamp, Buckley said.

Upright vacuum retail prices generally range from about $100 to $900. The equipment in this study falls within that range.

This work was supported through a contract with Halo Technologies Inc. of Des Plaines, Ill., which supplied the vacuum technology.

Co-authors of the study include Eric Lutz, Smita Sharma and Bruce Casto of the Division of Environmental Health Sciences and Glen Needham of the Department of Entomology, all at Ohio State.

UV News October 22, 2010: DEP completes first part of ultraviolet disinfection system

Ultraviolet water disinfection plant for drinking water treatment with UV
Disinfection units are being installed in what will be the largest facility of its type in the world.

WESTCHESTER – The New York City Department of Environmental Protection has installed the first ultraviolet disinfection units at its facility which is under construction in Westchester County.

The $1.6 billion facility, located on 153 acres in the towns of Mount Pleasant and Greenburgh, will provide enhanced disinfection for the Catskill-Delaware water system, said DEP Deputy Commissioner for Operations Kathryn Garcia.

“We anticipate this will be the largest UV facility of its kind in the world capable of treating over two billion gallons of water a day,” she note.

Each of the UV units will be able to treat up to 40 million gallons of water per day.

The New York City system, which runs through the Catskills and the Putnam-Westchester area, is exempt from filtration requirements. The water is already disinfected with chlorine, and the new UV facility, once completed, will provide a federally-required secondary level of disinfection against potentially harmful microbiological contaminants.

The disinfection project is expected to be completed in 2012 and be able to treat over two billion gallons of water per day.

UV News October 12, 2010: Trojan Technologies Reveals Revolutionary Wastewater Disinfection System – TrojanUVSigna™

Recently, at Weftec'10 in New Orleans, Trojan Technologies revealed their most progressive, open channel wastewater UV disinfection system to date – TrojanUVSigna. The system is specifically designed for large-scale disinfection applications, makes conversion to UV disinfection easier, reduces total cost of ownership and simplifies maintenance. An interesting holographic display was used to reveal the UV system and its advanced features.

"We've been looking forward to this day for quite some time now," says Marvin DeVries, President of Trojan Technologies. "TrojanUVSigna incorporates advanced and innovative technology, so it's only fitting that we reveal it in an innovative way. We're extremely happy to see the excitement and interest surrounding TrojanUVSigna."

Trojan has incorporated their latest lamp and technology innovations into TrojanUVSigna. These include 1000W TrojanUV Solo Lamp™ Technology; the advanced Solo Lamp™ Driver; staggered, inclined lamp arrangement; ActiClean™ chemical/mechanical sleeve cleaning; and a built-in module lifting device.

"The needs of wastewater treatment plants are evolving, and it's imperative that UV disinfection technology does too," explains DeVries. "In the 1990's we introduced two flagship products to the wastewater market – the TrojanUV4000Plus™ and the TrojanUV3000Plus™. Today, these systems are operating in over 1,500 facilities around the world, treating billions of gallons of water each day. We've taken the best features of both of these systems, incorporated the latest TrojanUV innovations, and developed the revolutionary TrojanUVSigna. We truly believe that this system will be the ideal solution for large facilities who want to cost-effectively convert from chlorine to UV disinfection."

UV News October 12, 2010: A New Route To Germ-Killing Photons
Nanotechnology & Development News

Engineers at Georgia Tech, United States, are developing nanomaterials that turn visible light into disinfecting ultraviolet light. These lanthanide nanomaterials emit ultraviolet radiation that can damage pathogens' DNA when bright indoor lighting or direct sunlight strikes them. Someday, the engineers say, coating surfaces with these substances may help disinfect drinking water, sterilize hospitals, protect packaged foods, and keep bathrooms clean. A phenomenon called upconversion photoluminescence allows the nanomaterials to perform their visible-to-UV transformation. Upconversion occurs readily in lanthanides, because their electronic configuration allows excited states to last longer, which results in the ability to release a high energy photon of UV light. The researchers found that lanthanides such as praseodymium, because it has properly spaced energy levels, are able to emit the UV light, unlike the lanthanides europium and terbium, which are more commonly used in fluorescent lightbulbs. The engineers reported their findings at the American Chemical Society Meeting being held recently in Boston. The article can be viewed online at the link below.

Summary posted by Meridian on 10/12/2010
Source: Chemical and Engineering News
Author: Aaron A. Rowe

UV News October 11, 2010: Global Ultraviolet Water & Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market - Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems Prove an Effective & Viable Water Treatment Technology

Research and Markets has announced the addition of Frost & Sullivan's new report "Global Ultraviolet (UV) Water and Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market" to their offering.

This research service titled Global Ultraviolet (UV) Water and Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market provides industry overview, market challenges, market forces, revenue forecasts by geographic regions, applications and treatment segments, competitive structure of the market and market share analysis. In this research, Frost & Sullivan's expert analysts thoroughly examine the revenues generated by the UV disinfection systems market through its application in the municipal and industrial water and wastewater treatment process.

Ultraviolet Disinfection Systems Prove an Effective and Viable Water Treatment Technology

The market for UV disinfection has a great opportunity to come good on its potential with passing of the Long term 2 enhanced surface water treatment rule, which encourages the adoption of UV disinfection systems in municipal water treatment plants. There is a pressing need to treat the cryptosporidium and giardia present in the surface water of North America and Europe, and UV has proved effective in treating these microbes. Many major cities such as New York, Cincinnati, Paris and Washington D.C have already installed UV disinfection systems in their water treatment facilities to treat cryptosporidium. Further, European legislation such as the Bathing Water Directive and Drinking Water Directive also greatly enhance the uptake of UV systems in the wastewater and water treatment segments. Moreover, UV disinfections systems are used widely in industries that employ high-purity process water in their manufacturing process, says the analyst of this research. Certain industrial segments such as pharmaceuticals, life science and semiconductors, which prefer non-chemical based disinfection methods, have increased the demand for high-purity water systems and thereby, UV disinfection systems.

Despite its considerable advantages, the high capital costs of UV disinfection systems compared to the conventional chlorine-based disinfection hinders its penetration in price-sensitive markets. The market is also facing stiff challenge from other disinfection technologies, especially chlorine-based ones. However, due to the recent directives in developed nations to control the amount of chlorine discharged from wastewater plants, the cost of chlorine-based disinfection has increased because of the additional costs of de-chlorinating the water before it is discharged. This process of chlorination and de-chlorination is more expensive than using UV, thus making UV more cost effective. There is also a general tendency among industrial plants to avoid chlorine-based disinfection systems, as the presence of residual chemicals in their process water could affect the manufacturing process.

Additionally, the rising demand and scarcity of potable water have led to growing interest in water reuse and recycle in many regions across the globe, notes the analyst. With UV disinfection forming a very essential part of the water re-use and recycling system, the market is expected to experience increased investments.

UV News September 20, 2010: SETI drives single chip germicidal UV LED optical output power to a record 100mW
Semiconductor-today.com News

Deep ultraviolet (UV) LED maker Sensor Electronic Technology Inc (SETI) of Columbia, SC, USA says that, in its continuing program to develop UV LEDs for germicidal applications, it has achieved single chip constant current performance of 100mW in the germicidal wavelength range. According to the firm, this achievement exceeds the record for maximum optical power out of a single chip device of this type.

SETI says that although this level of single chip performance is not yet available in its production LEDs, high power UV LED lamps are available under the UVCLEAN trademark with germicidal powers up to 50mW.

“High power UV LEDs are essential to achieve the level of disinfection required in point-of-use and point-of-entry water treatment systems,” said Remis Gaska, president and CEO of SETI. “This ongoing development of large area high power UV LEDs will help to reduce the price per milliwatt and allow UV LEDs to enter cost sensitive disinfection markets.”

Just last week, the firm announced that it had been awarded a $475,000 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II award from the US National Science Foundation (NSF) to develop point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection systems based on deep ultraviolet LEDs (DUV LEDs).

SETI will be presenting all the latest data on its high power single chip LEDs at the International Workshop on Nitrides (IWN) in Tampa, Florida, USA (September 19-24).

UV News September 15, 2010: SETI to develop water disinfection units based on deep ultraviolet LEDs

Sensor Electronic Technology Inc. (SETI), announced that is has been awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II award of $475,000 from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to develop point-of-use (POU) deep ultraviolet LED (DUV LED) based drinking water disinfection systems, according to a press release.

During this SBIR program, SETI will design, develop, fabricate and demonstrate advanced all-LED water treatment units with reduced power consumption and extended reliability.

The main effort will focus on increasing the germicidal efficacy and reducing the cost of LED disinfection units through the advances in LED packaging and disinfection chamber design, the release stated.

According to SETI, further development of UV disinfection technology using semiconductor UV lamps will utilize unique device characteristics, such as controlled UV spectral power distribution, fast switching time, lower power consumption, high reliability, small size and ruggedness.

UV News August 19, 2010: LEDs attract investment
Eetindia.co.in / Optoelectronics & Displays

An Epistar investment in Oree, and a joint development agreement between Asahi Kasei and Crystal IS, bodes an even brighter future for LEDs.

Epistar Corp. has injected some funds into Oree Inc. for the development of its flat solid state light source, dubbed the light cell; Oree's light source is thin and flat, about the size of a credit card. Suited for general lighting applications, decorative and architectural lighting and backlighting for LCD panels, the light cell is scheduled for high-volume production by early 2011.

Meanwhile, Asahi Kasei Corp. has signed a joint development agreement with Crystal IS Inc. to create a manufacturing process for large diameter aluminium nitride substrates based on Crystal IS proprietary IP. The "Aluminium nitride substrates are a critical component in the fabrication of ultraviolet (UVC) LEDs for energy efficient water and air sterilisation applications," explained Steven Berger, CEO, Crystal IS.

UV News July 26, 2010: Global UV market poised for growth

A new analysis from Frost & Sullivan found that the global market for ultraviolet (UV) water treatment systems earned revenues of $388.3 million in 2008, and estimated revenues to reach $629.8 million in 2015, according to a press release.

Many municipal water treatment plants in North America and Europe have adopted UV technology to deal with microbes such as cryptosporidium and giardia.

This trend, along with the recent ratification of legislation favoring UV methods, bodes well for the market, the release stated.

“UV disinfection systems are widely used in industries that employ high-purity water in their manufacturing process,” said Frost & Sullivan Research Analyst Karthikeyan Ravikumar. “Certain industrial segments such as pharmaceuticals, life science and semiconductors, which prefer non-chemical based disinfection methods, have increased the demand for high-purity water systems and thereby, UV disinfection systems.”

UV News July 22, 2010: Ultraviolet light - an invisible weapon against MRSA

A few years ago, Dr Peder Bo Nielsen MD FRCPath, Consultant medical microbiologist at Northwick Park Hospital, London, UK, launched a research program on airborne transmission of nosocomial infections. Until then, so called air-biology held no high priority in infection prevention and control. The prevailing perception was that colonization and contamination mainly happens due to direct contact with surfaces and/or persons – i.e. hand carried by healthcare workers.

A request from a company to test its air-decontamination solution first aroused skepticism came first, which rapidly changed to amazement and then came conviction. Today, following several years of experience, Dr Nielsen recognizes the importance of airborne transmission and the need to include it in any hospital infection and prevention program. Interviewed by Meike Lerner (EH), he described the significance of his research results:

"Our mind was a little conventional regarding infection control measurements. Therefore, when Medixair asked us to test their product in an everyday clinical environment, we didn’t really believe it had any impact on hospital infection. The function of Medixair is based on ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and the equipment looks like a mobile air-condition unit. After some negotiations we produced a controlled study that was approved by the ethics committee. It was properly designed with an intervention group and a control group. The intervention room was equipped with a mobile Medixair unit. The control room was without. Both study rooms were treated alike, and patients and environment were screened bacteriologically three times a week.

A significant difference in favor of Medixair appeared very quickly. The difference was surprisingly large, therefore we doubled the study period, but got exactly the same result. During the entire trial no patients got MRSA in the trial room compared to about 50% in the control room. There could only be one explanation. By taking bacteria out of the air we have protected both patients and the environment. Obviously this raised our interest in air-biology and we did some further tests to prove the risk of MRSA transmission through the air. So we swapped surfaces that nobody ever touches like ceilings and, indeed, we found a lot of MRSA in non-touch-areas. That could only mean that MRSA is swirled into the air and then settles down somewhere: on a ceiling, a patient, nurse, in another room. According to the literature, the germs may remain floating in the air for about 30 minutes – quite a long time to "travel" around. And every time a door, for example, is opened it acts like a fan and the bacteria starts to move again.

Those findings were the reasons to re-think our strategy. Until then we tried to protect the patient and the air from germs by wearing caps, masks and gloves. Now we started cleaning the air to avoid colonization – with impressive results.

Today, about 30 Medixair are in use in our hospital for a wide range of purposes. Because of the mobility of the system, it is possible to turn every room into an isolation room, which means that we don’t move the patient to a special room but bring the isolation room to the patient. We use the Medixair for patients who are colonised with MRSA, and also for any other patient colonized with multiresistant bacteria such as Acinetobacter, ESBL, VRE -- and not to forget Clostridium difficile. During the swine flu epidemic, for example, we placed them in the waiting area and the examination room in order to protect patients and staff. In my opinion, ‘mobile isolation rooms’ may change the way we deal with epidemics because we can ‘isolate’ many more patients for less cost. Fortunately, many hospitals are taking this into account and air-biology is becoming an important issue."

About Medixair

Medixair is a high energy ultraviolet air steriliser. The unit uses four 25W low pressure mercury UVc lamps that emit germicidal radiation at a peak wavelength at 253,7nm. By arranging the lamps in a close coupled geometric pattern, and employing a slow and controlled airspeed, it is possible to produce exceptionally high germicidal energy levels. Medixair is quiet in operation, economical to operate, portable and easy to install and maintain.

UV News July 15, 2010: Crystal IS: World record efficiency UVC LED technology
Energydigital.com ~ by Andrea Marino

Crystal IS has developed devices that achieve record breaking efficiency, power and lifetime at germicidal wavelength 250 nm.

Crystal IS, Inc, the top ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVC LED) developer, has unveiled its devices that demonstrate world record efficiency, power and lifetime at the optimal germicidal wavelength, 250nm. The Company recently published its testing results, which show for the first time that its energy-efficient LEDs have the performance necessary to take the place of commonly used, mercury-based disinfection lamps. The unusual diodes are made on a proprietary Aluminum Nitride (AIN) substrate.

“Previous efforts to develop practical LEDs at this wavelength have proven to be very difficult,” stated Crystal IS CTO Leo Schowalter. “Most workers in the field have used conventional substrates, such as sapphire as the starting material, and have struggled to produce commercially viable lifetime and power results. Today we are demonstrating that we have overcome many of those issues.”

The UVC LEDs by Crystal IS function at the optimum germicidal wavelength. The efficacy of the LEDs, together with low power requirements, longer lifespan and small size make the diodes ideal for use in water and air sterilization products. The applications will include residential and office use initially, in applications such as water coolers and counter top systems, which offer cleantech alternatives to bottled water. The goal is to add large scale applications for industry or municipal purification where long-lasting, energy efficient LEDs would be an excellent replacement for mercury-based light sources.

“We are now moving into our next stage of evolution as we shift our focus from research orientation to technology improvement and commercialization,” commented Dr. Steven Berger, CEO. “We are expanding our investor and partner base to take a prime position in this emerging market.”

UV News July 13, 2010: Severn Trent Services Showcases Latest Technological Developments in Water and Wastewater Treatment
ThomasNet Industrial News Room

Severn Trent Services, a leading global supplier of water and wastewater solutions, will be attending the IFAT ENTSORGA exhibition in Munich, Germany, from 13 - 17 September 2010. The company will be demonstrating its innovative solutions for water and wastewater treatment at stand A1.105. IFAT ENTSORGA is a leading global trade fair for water, sewage, waste and raw materials management.

A world leader in desalination and water reclamation / reuse Pressure on the world's water resources driven by climate change and population growth has created increased global demand for desalination and water reclamation / reuse technologies. Visitors to the Severn Trent Services stand can obtain information about the company's proven technologies designed to address world water shortages. The company has been providing water desalination technologies for more than 25 years and treatment solutions for reuse applications for more than 40 years.

Tertiary treatment systems Severn Trent Services is one of the world leaders in tertiary treatment technologies, with more than 300 systems installed worldwide including treatment of more than 1 million m3/d in Europe alone. The TETRA® DeepBed(TM) filtration system is a down flow sand filter for the filtration of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The technology offers process flexibility and high efficiency backwash for the removal of suspended solids and other insoluble contaminants. For nitrate-nitrogen and suspended solids removal, the process is easily upgraded to the TETRA® Denite® system, a fixed-film biological denitrification process. The Denite system integrates well with other plant treatment processes to provide superior total nitrogen and phosphorous removal. TETRA Denite and TETRA DeepBed filters represent more than 10 percent of the world's capacity for wastewater reuse systems including more than 40 percent of all installations in Florida, United States.

The TETRA® NSAF (nitrifying submerged aerated filter) is a tertiary ammonia removal process for municipal and industrial wastewaters. The TETRA NSAF is available in a range of sizes from small modular units for above ground construction to large bespoke design plants. All sizes of the NSAF are capable of achieving low ammonia standards.

Electrochlorination technology Severn Trent Services is a leading supplier of electrochlorination technology. Since 1988 the company has installed more than 3,500 ClorTec® on-site sodium hypochlorite generating systems worldwide, and the systems have been used for water reclamation / reuse applications in water-starved regions of the world. Severn Trent Services also has developed a cost-effective system for the on-site production of sodium hypochlorite for use in swimming pools, cooling towers and food and drink applications - the ClorTec SCT mini on-site sodium hypochlorite generating system. This compact, innovative new product offers a safe and reliable alternative to the transportation of hazardous chemicals and is easy to maintain.

Microwave UV disinfection Severn Trent Services' innovative MicroDynamics® microwave ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems have been successfully employed in water reuse applications worldwide, including the recent installation of Spain's first-ever system combining chlorine dioxide and UV system. The MicroDynamics system uses microwave energy to energize the bulbs and generate consistent-strength UV disinfection. The system offers extended bulb life and reliability, operating cost savings and health and safety benefits for employees on site due to its unique design. The bulb replacement and maintenance costs of MicroDynamics systems can be as little as half of competing UV technologies, primarily driven by the unique microwave-powered electrodeless lamps. Each system comes with a three-year bulb life warranty.

Underdrain filters for drinking water applications The TETRA® LP Block,(TM) a dual parallel lateral underdrain filter floor for RGF and GAC filters, is extremely popular with plant owners for their low headloss, lightweight construction and easy installation. The system provides excellent distribution of both backwash air and water to offer more efficient bed cleaning and lower operating costs. Severn Trent Services has been awarded several contracts to supply TETRA LP Blocks for pre-treatment at desalination plants throughout Europe including the recently completed Fouka SWRO plant at Tipaza, Algeria, in conjunction with ACCIONA AGUA.

As part of the European Water Association's 15th International Symposium on water, wastewater, waste and energy, Severn Trent Services will be giving three poster presentations focusing on innovative, new technologies including TETRA Denite, ClorTec on-site sodium hypochlorite generators and MicroDynamics microwave UV disinfection.

UV News June 29, 2010: Point Of Entry UV Water Disinfection Will Fly On Boeing's New 787 Dreamliners
Wateronline.com ~ Source US Environmental Protection Agency

As recently as October last fall, the US Environmental Protection Agency published its updated Final Drinking Water Rule for water safety standards on commercial aircraft to help ensure that safe and reliable drinking water is provided to aircraft passengers and crew. The rule requires multiple-barrier protection through standards for coliform sampling, best management practices, corrective action, public notification, monitoring and operator training. It will better protect the public from illnesses caused by microbiological contamination.

"This rule is a significant step forward in protecting people's health when they travel," said Peter S. Silva, assistant administrator for EPA's Office of Water.

Boeing is a step ahead. When they conceived the 787 Dreamliner as the new standard of 21st century aircraft design, long before current concern for water quality on board commercial airliners, Boeing's engineers incorporated new technologies that would change the way we fly, including point of entry UV water purification on every 787.

Boeing worked with Zodiac Aerospace's Monogram Systems division to develop an innovative water treatment system for purification of Aircraft water.

Monogram Systems began a global search for the most advanced UV water purification technology that led to a technology licensing agreement with UV Pure Technologies of Toronto for exclusive use of it's patented Crossfire Technology in aerospace applications.

Rick VanSant, CEO of UV Pure Technologies said, "Crossfire Technology is at work in our systems in over 9000 applications globally. It represents significant engineering and performance advances for UV based water purification systems – we are honored that Boeing and Monogram have chosen our 21st century UV technology to provide safe water on board the Dreamliner – the new 21st century standard for airliners. We think it's a perfect fit."

According to Gene Zip, Vice President of Sales and Support for Monogram Systems, "Monogram Systems consistently leads the industry in fusing design and innovation and producing the most reliable Cabin system equipment. There is a Monogram Systems product on-board nearly every western commercial aircraft flying in the world today."

Monogram engineers worked with UV Pure's engineers to adapt the land based technology to an aerospace platform and certify it to FAA standards.

The systems are smart with multiple sensors that enable a display on the airplane's "glass cockpit" so that the pilots can tell that the plane's water is effectively disinfected. In addition to adapting communications protocols so that the system's smart technology and multiple sensors can tie into aircraft displays, Monogram had to adapt it for high G forces and vibration in four dimensions. UV Pure's systems use low pressure high output lamps and the new aircraft ballast that powers those lamps was adapted to work with "wild power" typically found on commercial aircraft.

The product is completely self-contained, requiring only electrical power and standard water connections. Utilizing high intensity ultra-violet light, the treatment device kills over 99.99% of all bacteria and viruses found in common water sources. The device can be used to clean water as it enters the Aircraft, or, to continuously clean water as it is circulating throughout the cabin of the Aircraft, providing safe drinking water to the passengers and crew. The product has several unique proprietary innovations that allow the Airplane operator to remotely monitor performance.

UV Pure Technologies develops and manufactures technically advanced, world leading UV water purification systems for residential, commercial, and municipal applications up to 1 MGD flow rates for drinking water and waste water treatment.

The company's patented Crossfire Technology offers easy lamp changes and visual quartz inspection, is self-cleaning and smart - with multiple sensors and on-board diagnostics. All systems provide a minimum dose of 40 mJ/cm².

UV Pure markets three product lines: Hallett systems are NSF/ANSI 55 Class A certified, and Upstream systems that are engineered to achieve the same performance standards as NSF 55 Class A for use where regulations do not require it, and for UVT levels as low as 50%. The company has recently launched Cactus systems that are designed and priced for residential applications.

UV News June 28, 2010: Ultraviolet disinfection contract awarded to Calgon Carbon

Calgon Carbon Corporation announced today that it has been awarded a contract by the City of Cincinnati, Ohio, to provide an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system for the Richard Miller Water Treatment Plant UV Disinfection Facility. The value of the contract is $2.4 million.

Eight Sentinel® 48" Chevron reactors (Chevron 48) are scheduled to be delivered in late 2011 and will treat up to 240 million gallons of drinking water per day. Two additional Sentinel Chevron 48 reactors have been included in plans to allow for future growth. The Chevron 48, which is Calgon Carbon's highest flow unit in its Sentinel product line, can disinfect up to 50 million gallons of drinking water per day.

Commenting on this announcement, James A. Sullivan, Calgon Carbon's vice president Americas operations said, "We are pleased that our Sentinel design was selected to meet the City of Cincinnati's disinfection and compliance needs. The continued success of the Chevron 48 strengthens our position in the growing, global drinking water disinfection market."

Calgon Carbon Corporation, headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a global leader in services and solutions for making water and air safer and cleaner.

UV News June 18, 2010: Harbour sewage probe still underway
Thechronicleherald.ca - by MICHAEL LIGHTSTONE

More than a year after Environment Canada began looking into citizen complaints about Halifax’s sewage plant breakdown, the agency still hasn’t finished its investigation or decided on possible charges.

... The $54-million treatment plant officially opened in February 2008. Eleven months later, a malfunction flooded the site, near downtown Halifax and the waterfront.

"By installing a sewage treatment plant, the ... municipality has taken significant steps to comply with the pollution-prevention provisions of the Fisheries Act."

If Halifax city hall has a tentative restart date for the repaired sewage plant, it’s not saying. An initial estimate was to have the plant "fully operational" again this spring.

Mayor Peter Kelly said the plant is essentially fixed but won’t be considered totally repaired until an ultraviolet light disinfection system is installed.

"Once the (ultraviolet) system is on, I would presume it wouldn’t take a whole lot of time" before the treatment plant is deemed to be complete" ...

UV News June 14, 2010: Deep UV LED efficiency reaches 3% with moth-eye sapphire substrates
Semiconductor-today.com - by Mike Cooke

Researchers based in Nagoya, Japan have reported deep ultraviolet (255–280nm wavelength) LEDs with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of up to 3% [Cyril Pernot et al, Appl. Phys. Express, vol3, p061004, 2010]. The output power was up to 1mW at 10mA. The researchers “predict that an EQE of 5% for UV-C (280–100nm) single-chip LEDs is within reach.”

The achievements were based on improvements of about 1.5x in extraction efficiency through using sapphire substrates with ‘moth-eye’ structuring on their back-side (i.e. away from the active nitride semiconductor layers). Such structures have been used (by the same research group) for blue LEDs with silicon carbide substrates to boost light extraction.

The researchers – from UV Craftory Co Ltd, Meijo University, EL-SEED Corp, and Nagoya University – see applications in replacing mercury lamps with alternatives that are more compact, efficient, safer (no mercury) and versatile (with a wavelength ranging between 360nm and 200nm, rather than single wavelengths, determined by the mercury emission line spectrum, at 184nm, 254nm, 365nm . . .).

Systems using DUV LEDs are being developed for sterilization, water purification and surface disinfection. Other applications include curing of materials such as adhesives, spectrometry, medical therapies and currency validation.

The leading material system for LEDs in this wavelength range is aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN), with energy bandgaps up to 6.2eV (i.e. wavelengths down to ~200nm) for pure AlN. However, as the target wavelength gets shorter, it becomes more difficult to produce high-efficiency devices. In particular, for the wavelength range below 280nm, external quantum efficiencies have been less than 2% up to now.

One major restriction on UV LED development is the p-type contact. The Al-content (if any) of the p-AlGaN layer has to be kept small for reasonable activation (already less than ideal in pure GaN) of the magnesium doping that is used. However, the AlGaN energy bandgap at these low Al-contents is narrower than the target wavelength and hence the p-contact is highly absorbing of the UV emitted by the active region. Developers of DUV devices are therefore forced to extract light mainly in the opposite direction, through the substrate. This is achieved through flip-chip packaging arrangements.

Although the n-type doping achieved by silicon doping can be carried out acceptably with higher-Al-content AlGaN, the material is more resistive, making heat generation a greater problem compared with longer-wavelength devices. Thermal management is therefore also important in achieving acceptable device performance.

The devices were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethyl-metal and ammonia sources. The Al-content of the AlGaN quantum wells controlled the emission wavelength (40%, ~280nm; 57%, 255nm). A p-AlGaN electron-blocking layer (EBL) was used to prevent electron overshoot into the p-type contact region.

The LEDs consisted of 800μm x 800μm mesas with nickel alloy and gold bonding pads for the p-contact and aluminum alloy and gold bonding pads for the n-contact. The chips were flipped onto thermally conductive AlN submounts. The mounted devices were installed in TO5 transistor outline packages.

Pulsed (10Hz, 20% duty cycle) and continuous wave (CW) operation were used to evaluate the devices. A 257nm device had a turn-on voltage of 5.5V and a forward voltage of 6.3V at 20mA. At this injection current, the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) value of the spectral peak was 10nm. The output power at 20mA was more than 2.8mW and the maximum EQE was 3% for all the devices studied. The peak wall-plug efficiency is estimated to be 2.2%. Output of 10mW was achieved at 66mA and 1mW at 8mA.

Self-heating effects tend to degrade the LED performance in CW operation at high currents. For the 257nm device, the output power was more than 1mW at 10mA (CW) without a heat-sink.

“The improved n-AlGaN quality allowed us to achieve these results, which are, to the best of our knowledge, the best reported to date for single-chip UV-C devices,” comment the researchers.

The improved n-AlGaN was achieved through depositing it on the thick AlN layer that was grown at high temperature on the initial sapphire substrate.

The effect of the moth-eye structuring of the sapphire substrate on light extraction was evaluated by producing 270nm devices with and with-out the patterning, and a 1.5-fold improvement was seen. The improvement is lower than for blue LEDs because the DUV light cannot undergo multiple reflections in the p-contact region, the researchers believe. The team wants to optimize the moth-eye structure for DUV emission in future work.

The researchers also performed reliability studies – at 10mA (CW), the output power was maintained at more than 75% of its initial value for 300 hours. This value is expected to be lengthened by improving the heat management of the devices through package optimization.

UV News May 6, 2010: Trojan Technologies Set To Unveil Revolutionary Lamp Technology

Trojan Technologies recently announced that they will officially unveil their new revolutionary lamp and driver – known as TrojanUV Solo Lamp™ Technology – at AWWA ACE'10 in Chicago, IL (June 20 – 24, 2010). Trojan will be displaying this groundbreaking technology in their booth (#725), along with examples of how it will be incorporated into future water treatment systems, such as the large-capacity TrojanUVTorrent™.

The Solo Lamp™ is the most powerful, high-efficiency lamp in the world and is paired with the advanced, energy-efficient Solo Lamp™ Driver. It is no longer necessary for municipalities installing UV technology to make a choice between energy-efficiency and a small footprint. This revolutionary lamp technology offers the high electrical efficiency of a low-pressure UV system, while simultaneously providing the low lamp count similar to a medium-pressure UV lamp system.

"Our customers' needs are evolving, and so too is our UV technology," says Marvin DeVries, President of Trojan Technologies. "Thanks to technology advancements like this, our future water treatment systems can be designed to provide both high UV output and high electrical efficiency – the best of both worlds. After five years of research and development, we are excited to officially launch TrojanUV Solo Lamp™ Technology, and are looking forward to introducing it at ACE'10."

By using fewer and more efficient lamps, the carbon footprint associated with UV treatment is reduced to less than 1/3 that of medium pressure UV lamp systems. The increased efficiency of the Solo Lamp™ translates into a significant reduction in wasted energy, peak electrical loads, and associated electrical infrastructure.

"Our Solo Lamp™ Technology will be offered for drinking water, wastewater and environmental contaminant treatment, and will form a key technology platform for future large-scale applications," says Devries.

The TrojanUV Solo Lamp™ and Driver Technology enables the design of an extremely energy-efficient solution with the smallest physical footprint and total lamp count possible. The result is a low-maintenance system coupled with ActiClean™ – an effective, dual action lamp sleeve cleaning system – to maximize total efficiency and minimize power consumption.

UV News May 1, 2010: Water going under ultraviolet
Canada.com ~ by Sarah Simpson

North Cowichan picks UV treatment over traditional chlorine to ensure purity of water

The old saying is if it ain't broke don't fix it.

In this case, however, North Cowichan's director of engineering and operations says better safe than sorry.

John MacKay says it's about time the Boys Road well water supply is treated.

"Years ago we had approval to just pump ground water out of the ground and so far so good," said MacKay in reference to the 30-plus-year-old water system in North Cowichan's south end. "We haven't had any problems."

But, MacKay said after conversations with the Vancouver Island Health Authority, the Municipality is poised to make the change to alleviate any risk.

Instead of chlorinating the water, North Cowichan has elected to treat it with an ultraviolet system.

Chlorine was at one time a more widely accepted treatment system but the benefits of UV treatments are becoming clearer.

UV adds nothing to the water so, "It won't affect the excellent taste of the water," said Mayor Tom Walker last week.

Some argue chlorine leaves water with an undesirable taste.

The UV filtration process is much faster as well.

"The water is continuously treated," said MacKay.

At its most basic explanation, the water will run through a vessel full of special light bulbs.

"The light shines though the water and basically disinfects it," said MacKay.

UV systems require less maintenance and are also less expensive to operate.

"If the municipality chose chlorination as a way to disinfect we would have to do more work at a higher cost," he told Walker and councillors last week.

MacKay did say, however, that in the future some chlorine might need to be added to target organisms that could potentially spring up over time.

UV News April 21, 2010: Ultraviolet treatment for water suggested
UPI.com ~ Science News

TAU demonstrates that UV light can zap unwanted "life" in your drinking water and save taxpayer dollars

Does your drinking water smell foul, or are you worried that chemicals might be damaging your family's health? Water treatment facilities currently use chlorine that produces carcinogenic by-products to keep your tapwater clean, but Tel Aviv University scientists have determined that ultra-violet (UV) light might be a better solution.

Dr. Hadas Mamane of Tel Aviv University's Porter School of Environmental Science and Faculty of Engineering, Prof. Eliora Ron of TAU's George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences and their doctoral student Anat Lakretz of TAU's School of Mechanical Engineering have recently determined the optimal UV wavelength for keeping water clean of microorganisms. Their approach could be used by water treatment plants as well as large-scale desalination facilities to destroy health-threatening microorganisms and make these facilities more efficient.

"UV light irradiation is being increasingly applied as a primary process for water disinfection," says Lakretz. "In our recent study, we've shown how this treatment can be optimized to kill free-swimming bacteria in the water — the kinds that also stick inside water distribution pipes and clog filters in desalination plants by producing bacterial biofilms."

This undesired "stickiness" of bacteria to surfaces is called "bio-fouling," which costs taxpayers and governments billions of dollars each year. "No one should be drinking microorganisms in their water. In addition, when microorganisms get stuck in the pores of the membranes of filters, they create serious problems," says Lakretz.

Not all UV light is created equal

Irradiation could be used as a pre-treatment to inactivate suspended microorganisms in water, with the secondary goal of preventing bio-fouling. In their study, reported in the journal Biofouling, the researchers looked at targeted UV light wavelengths on the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, commonly found in drinking water.

The TAU researchers investigated UV wavelengths within between the 220-280 nanometers (nm) scale, and found that any wavelength between 254 and 270 nm effectively cleaned the water. Those in the same region were also best for keeping membranes clear of bacterial build-up in desalination plants, they reported. Special lamps that emit a multi-wavelength UV spectrum — more advanced than the single-wavelength UV lamps found in home water systems — were used.

The UV "zap" also prevented bacterial re-growth in the water after UV inactivation. "The best way to control and kill these micro-organisms was to damage their DNA," says Lakretz. "The damage that the UV light causes has no known negative effect on the water," she adds.

In addition, the prevention of biofilm formation by bacteria was UV dose-dependent. The researchers reported less bio-fouling when a bigger dose of UV light was applied to the water around the film.

A light to save lives

The approach is even more helpful against parasites that aren't adversely affected by chlorine treatment, such as Giarrdia and Cryptosporidium, two harmful parasites that cause severe diarrhea and can lead to death. Children, the elderly and those in developing nations are particularly vulnerable. "Sewage leakage into water supplies poses a big problem in terms of bacterial contamination, and is something UV light could remediate," says Lakretz.

Small amounts of chorine or other oxidants will still be necessary to make sure that residual bacteria don't enter the water further along the distribution pipeline. But Lakretz says this new approach to disinfecting water while controlling biofouling can also reduce the amount of carcinogenic by-products that chlorine produces.

The Tel Aviv University team is part of the MAGNET consortium, an Israeli research-oriented project aimed at researching and commercializing “clean” technologies.

UV News April 12, 2010: Studies Highlight the Emergence of UV Germicidal Technology in the Fight Against Infectious Pathogens

Attendees of the Fifth Decennial International Conference on Healthcare-Associated Infection were offered a record 37 presentations on the critical role of contaminated environmental surfaces in the transmission of pathogens in healthcare settings.

Several studies focused on the use of TRU-D, an automated, no-touch, portable UV device, to control microbial contamination. Results were similar for all tests, with data indicating a meaningful reduction of MRSA, VRE, Acinetobacter, and C-diff on an array of environmental surfaces.

In a presentation by Dr. William A. Rutala, Ph.D., M.P.H. (UNC Health Care System), research performed by Dr. Philip Carling (Carney Hospital, Dorchester, MA) was referenced whereby invisible luminescent pens were used to determine the effectiveness of terminal cleaning protocol. Data revealed that only 50% of surfaces within a patient room are disinfected at terminal cleaning. More importantly, several prior studies show that inadequate terminal cleaning of rooms occupied by patients with MDR pathogens places the next patient in these rooms at increased risk of acquiring these organisms.

Before-and-after culture tests performed by Rutala revealed that automated UV germicidal irradiation reduced >99.9% of vegetative bacteria, 99.84% for C.difficile. In MRSA patient rooms, UV-C caused a significant reduction in samples positive for MRSA (37 pre vs. 2 post) and in total average CFU's (384 pre vs. 19 post). The study concluded that UV germicidal energy provides "reliable biological activity against a wide range of pathogens."

In an environmental-surface study presented by Nancy L. Havill, MT, and John M. Boyce, MD (Hospital of Saint Raphael, New Haven, CT), disks inoculated with Clostridium difficile spores (~ 105) were placed in patient rooms and bathrooms. UV Light Decontamination (UVLD) reduced the number of C. difficile spores on disks by an average of 99%. Cultures were also obtained from high-touch surfaces in each room before and after UVLD. When UVLD was first carried out in the patient bathroom, followed by a second cycle in the patient room, 88% of 25 contaminated high-touch surfaces yielded no growth with UVLD. Havill concluded that UV-C light successfully eliminated aerobic bacteria from most high-touch surfaces.

The study, "Evaluation of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of healthcare-associated pathogens in hospital rooms and on portable medical equipment," was presented by a research group from the Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (Michelle Nerandzic, BS; Jen Cadnum; Michael J. Pultz, BS; Curtis Donskey, MD). After routine cleaning, 18% of sites under the edges of bedside tables were found to be contaminated with MRSA. After Tru-D disinfection, sites revealed 0% contamination (P <0.001). An average of 3.5 logs of planted S. warneri remained under each bedside table after routine hospital cleaning versus 0.8 logs per site after Tru-D disinfection (P = 0.06). Tru-D disinfection also reduced the frequency of positive C. difficile cultures by 83%. They concluded that "the Tru-D Rapid Room Disinfection device is an efficient environmental disinfection technology that significantly reduces C. difficile and Staphylococcus spp. contamination on commonly touched hospital surfaces. More importantly, Tru-D reduces contamination levels on surfaces not easily amenable to standard housekeeping disinfection."

UV News April 12, 2010: Revolutionary Technology Utilizes UV Light To Purify Calf Milk

Ultraviolet (UV) light has been proven to be an effective disinfectant and is a common method of sterilization for many industries. GEA Farm Technologies has adapted UV technology in a unique way, as they introduce the UV Pure™ calf milk purifier. With UV Pure, dairy producers can purify waste milk to yield a nutrient-rich product for their young calves at a much lower operating cost than heat pasteurization systems. It is fully automated, easy-to-use and is available in several configurations to fit virtually any size dairy operation. Plus, the UV Pure process takes less time and much less energy to purify the milk compared to traditional methods.

“Heat pasteurization is effective at killing bacteria, but it can be time consuming and utilize a significant amount of energy. Heating the waste milk to pasteurization temperature can also degrade the nutritional value of the milk,” said Linda Mrugacz, Director – Marketing & Communications for GEA Farm Technologies, Inc. “With UV Pure, the UV light kills pathogenic bacteria, without significantly affecting the nutrient value or the immune factors (IgGs) in fresh milk, which are essential to early calf health.”

Purifying waste milk with the UV Pure provides an easy way to feed a low-cost, yet highly nutritious product to young calves. Dairy producers have the potential to substantially reduce the cost of raising their calves, while promoting optimal calf health during their most crucial growth period.

Features & Benefits of UV Pure:

• Proven effective ultraviolet (UV) light technology — kills bacteria without affecting the vital nutrients contained within the milk. The UV Pure has been extensively tested at the University of Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research.
• Considerable money and energy savings — typical heat pasteurizers require high capacity electrical service and contain large heating elements or require an industrial boiler to achieve required pasteurization temperatures. The UV Pure only requires enough power to light the UV lamps and operate the circulation pump. The UV Pure requires up to 92% less energy than traditional calf milk pasteurizers, when processing the same amount of waste milk.
• Flexible and modular design — The UV Pure processing equipment is housed in a single cabinet and is connected to a milk vat. The UV Pure unit is available in either a 2-turbulator or a 3-turbulator module. The 3-turbulator module requires fewer passes to reduce processing time. The UV Pure system is ideal for use in an automated calf feeding system.
• Heats waste milk to feeding temperature — a hot water circuit allows cold milk from the storage vat to be brought up to feeding temperature.
• Operator ease — vat level detection automatically calculates the required dosage of UV light needed to properly kill bacteria. A simple selector switch and push button operation means minimal training time.
• Requires less labor and maintenance — programmable, automatic start times allow the milk to be processed just before feeding time, and the automatic wash system ensures the UV Pure unit is washed properly and regularly. Dairy producers who have used UV Pure systems on their farms report that the systems are very reliable and require much less maintenance than traditional systems.

UV News April 8, 2010: STERIS' New Disinfectant System Gets FDA OK
Dotmed.com - by Brendon Nafziger, Writer

A successor to a popular but troubled medical device sterilizer received U.S. Food and Drug Administration clearance Tuesday, the agency announced.

The device, dubbed the STERIS SYSTEM 1E Liquid Chemical Sterilant Processing System, is set to replace the STERIS System 1, a widely used re-processor that the FDA urged customers to turn away from after STERIS made what FDA considered to be unapproved changes to its software and design.

The new STERIS 1E machine is used for disinfecting endoscopes and other devices that would be damaged by steam or other heat-sterilizing methods. The STERIS system washes the devices with a chemical germicide. To ensure the product is safe to use inside a person, it is then rinsed clean with ultraviolet light-treated water.

In May 2008, the FDA sent warning letters to Mentor, Ohio-based STERIS, noting that because of changes to its STERIS 1 system, made over a 14-year period, the agency could no longer vouch for the effectiveness of the machine. In December 2009, the FDA then told customers to begin looking for alternative products, while in January STERIS re-submitted an application for the device and halted all sales.

But these troubles appear to be a thing of the past.

"The recently cleared device does address all of the issues that were noted in the warning letter issued on May 2008 on System 1 as well a some other technology enhancements we included in the application," Stephen Norton, a STERIS spokesman, tells DOTmed News.

Though cleared for marketing the device, STERIS is holding off rolling it out to customers until the FDA delivers transition plans for the thousands of health centers still using the STERIS 1 system. Still, Norton says they hope to start selling the new product later this summer.


According to Norton, the new device will offer some advantages over its predecessor. At 23 minutes per cycle, it will have a 20 percent faster cycle time. It also uses almost one-third less water, with two rinse cycles compared to the original four. To answer FDA concerns, the water used in rinsing is blasted first with germ-killing UV rays to keep it sanitary. The sterilant cup is also more environmentally friendly, according to Norton.

"System 1 has a long legacy of use, and has processed more than 300 million devices during its time in the market," Norton says. "Now...our customers have a logical successor to consider as they evaluate alternatives."

UV News March 23, 2010: “Clean water for a healthy world” – Drinking water treatment with UV emitters from Heraeus Noblelight

Drinking water treatment with UV technology
Drinking water treatment with UV technology, for clean drinking water is something we should be able to rely on (Photo: Heraeus Noblelight GmbH, Hanau)

World Water Day on 22 March – New Challenges for Drinking Water Treatment
- Sustainable Maintenance of Water Quality with Advanced Oxidation
- UV Purification 100 years Ago and Today.

“Clean water for a healthy world” – the theme of the World Water Day, a UN campaign, which takes place annually on 22 March, is dedicated this year to the quality of water. In order that water is suitable for drinking, cooking and washing, it must be able to satisfy high quality specifications in terms of chemical content and microbiological constitution. It must be free from pathogens and chemical substances which could cause illnesses. That this should not be taken for granted is demonstrated by the fact that in America it has been shown that in more than 46 million households there are residuals of medications and pollutants in drinking water.

Drinking water treatment involving water disinfection using energy-intensive ultraviolet radiation is already a well established and environmentally friendly technique. The treatment of drinking water with UV radiation is a very effective physical process for reliably disinfecting water. The energy-rich light of a wavelength of 254 nanometers destroys the genetic make-up and, in seconds, destroys the cells of the pathogens present in the water. Ultraviolet light is particularly effective on parasites which are chlorine-resistant. As the purification takes place without chemicals and there are no chemical residuals the quality of the drinking water is not impaired in terms of taste or smell. However, increasingly residuals of medications, hormones, pesticides and weed killers are affecting clean drinking water and present new challenges for drinking water treatment. It is necessary to destroy and render harmless complex pharmaceutical molecules such as steroids and antibiotics, as well as pollutants.

Water Treatment with “Advanced Oxidation”
With the “Advanced Oxidation” process ultraviolet radiation can break down pollutants in the water. As distinguished from water disinfection, additionally in Advanced Oxidation UV radiation below 250 nanometers is used. The properties of this still energy-rich UV light are used in water purification are used to destroy substances in the water which are biologically difficult or impossible to break down. Chemical compounds are decomposed or more precisely converted and thus destroyed and made ineffective. The Advanced Oxidation process is carried out with UV radiation and a combination of ozone or alternatively hydrogen peroxide or both.

The subject of pollutant content in drinking water is still in its early days. There are no clear legal guideline limits for pollutant content in water. It is a challenge to achieve good water quality. Nevertheless, the water treatment process using Advanced Oxidation is already being carried here and there. For example, the largest and most modern waterworks in the Netherlands PWN in Andijk, no longer uses just UV equipment for the disinfection of drinking water but has also introduced additional processes using Advanced Oxidation to destroy pollutants in water. Around 25 million cubic meters of dirty water ware treated here a year. Since 1953, the waterworks in the Ijsselmeer has supplied around 1 million people in the immediate area up to 100km away with clean water.

100 Years of UV Treatment
The history of UV purification already goes back 100 years. The first patented purification with UV light took place in France in 1910 using quartz glass lamps – a development going back to the work of Richard Kuech (1860-1915) in 1904. In 100 years much has changed. “Today’s requirements and challenges for UV lamps focus on significantly increasing efficiency and operating life,” states Dr Sven Schalk, business leader for UV Process Technology at Heraeus Noblelight. Heraeus Noblelight, a manufacturer of special light sources, has developed innovative high power amalgam lamps for potable water treatment, which can be operated for up to 16,000 hours at virtually constant UV output. Thanks to their unique Longlife coating, they carry on working for twice as long as conventional standard low pressure lamps. This special coating is applied to the inside of the quartz glass sheathing of the lamp and, as a result, the aging process of the lamp is significantly improved. “With the new coating we have successfully eliminated the transmission loss of the quartz glass which affects conventional UV lamps and so achieved a virtually constant disinfection action over the complete lamp life,” says, Schalk in explaining the lamp development.

A long operating life and greater UV output are of great benefit to system builders. For example, they need fewer lamps in the design of disinfection plants and this offers significant potential savings in terms of lamp costs, obviously, as well as savings in energy and maintenance. Water treatment processes and systems using UV technology are not only environmentally-friendly but also open up future prospects to ensure the sustainability of drinking water quality.

UV light is versatile – it can be used to treat air, water or surfaces. Drinking water treatment in waterworks, waste water treatment in clarification plants, process water treatment in industry (such as the recycling and re-use of process water) or the treatment of ballast water in ships are just some of the environmentally friendly applications of UV technology in the water industry.

Heraeus Noblelight GmbH with its headquarters in Hanau and with subsidiaries in the USA, Great Britain, France, China, Australia and Puerto Rico, is one of the technology and market leaders in the production of specialty light sources. In 2008, Heraeus Noblelight had an annual turnover of 92.5 Million € and employed 735 people worldwide. The organisation develops, manufactures and markets infrared and ultraviolet emitters for applications in industrial manufacture, environmental protection, medicine and cosmetics, research, development and analytical laboratories.

UV News March 22, 2010: Combined UV-chlorine dioxide disinfection system benefits Spanish reuse facility

Spain's first-ever combined ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine dioxide disinfection treatment system has been installed by Severn Trent Services-Apliclor at a wastewater treatment plant in Reus – a site operated by the municipal water company Aigues de Reus Empresa Municipal.

The disinfection system uses microwave ultraviolet technology combined with Aquadiox chlorine dioxide generators to treat wastewater for a variety of reuse applications, reducing the plant’s effluent discharge volume.

The plant, which serves the wastewater treatment needs of communities in the province of Tarragona, has a treatment capacity of 25,000 m³/day.

The MicroDynamics system uses microwave energy to energise UV lamps, which the company said helps to generate "consistent-strength disinfection".

The Aquadiox chlorine dioxide generator will produce chlorine dioxide on site to provide residual disinfection, preventing bacteria from forming in the plant’s distribution network.

Sodium chlorite and hydrochloric acid will be used to generate the chlorine dioxide solution. Severn Trent Services-Apliclor said the benefit of using chlorine dioxide disinfection is that it reacts less with organic matter present in the distribution network, thus eliminating odours and minimising the formation of Trihalomethanes.

Rick Bacon, general manager of Severn Trent Services-Apliclor, said: “The MicroDynamics system combined with the chlorine dioxide generators will provide assurance for users that all water in the Reus network – including the water in the pipes and at the point of use – is treated safely.”

UV News March 22, 2010: Hospital Acquired Infections Increasing; UV Disinfection Technology Could Reduce the Staggering Cost
Webwire.com ~ by Paul Cochrane

A recent study sponsored by Resources for the Future and reported in the Archives of Internal Medicine reported that in 2006, hospital acquired infections added $8.1 billion in additional medical costs annually. Many infection control experts agree that the rate of these infections has been increasing and there are reportedly 1.7 million hospital acquired infections diagnosed each year.

Many of these infections are due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas (MRSA) and other pathogens. Drug-resistant infections are difficult and costly to treat since few drugs work effectively to stop these types of hospital acquired infections.

Historically, most cases of MRSA have been hospital acquired, but community acquired MRSA infections are also becoming more common. MRSA infections often occur in crowded environments including hospitals, gyms and schools. The bacteria can be spread by direct skin to skin contact as well as from contact with contaminated surfaces.

UltraViolet Devices, Inc. (UVDI), a leading provider of advanced ultraviolet (UV) disinfection products for air and surfaces, has designed products to specifically eliminate threats from MRSA and other pathogens found in hospitals and other indoor environments. The use of these products is supported by the Airborne Infectious Diseases position paper from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) that was released in 2009. The ASHRAE paper states that, “Airborne infectious disease transmission can be reduced using dilution ventilation, specific in-room flow regimes, room pressure differentials, personalized and source capture ventilation, filtration and UVGI.”

“Properly applied ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) can dramatically help reduce the number of deaths and infections and save billions of dollars in reduced medical costs,” reported Paul Cochrane, Public Relations Manager for UVDI reported. “Solutions include mobile surface disinfection technology like UVDI’s Mobile Room Sanitizer and permanent air stream disinfection technology such as UVDI’s V-FLEX which is installed directly in the HVAC system.”

UV News March 15, 2010: Increased UV power from diamond LEDs enables E. coli sterilization
Semiconductor-today.com ~ by Mike Cooke

Researchers in Japan have increased deep ultraviolet output power to 0.3mW from diamond light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and used the radiation as a sterilizing agent against Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The latest UV LEDs emit at wavelengths around 235nm, corresponding to the energy of the diamond exciton (electron–hole bound state). The external quantum efficiency was 0.01%. These results were presented at the recent nano tech 2010 exhibition and conference in Tokyo.

The 235nm wavelength is short enough to give the energy that is needed (~260nm) to break the chemical bonds between corresponding base pairs within the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers of micro-organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Rather than forming the usual hydrogen-bonded thymine-adenine (T-A) base pairs in the DNA double-helix, neighboring thymine pairs on a single chain are transformed to bond covalently, disrupting the genetic code.

Presently, bulky 254nm mercury lamps are most often used for such UV sterilization. UV sterilization can be effective also against bacteria that are resistant to thermal treatments. However, breakage of mercury lamps poses environmental hazards.

Development of the LED was performed by two scientists, Satoshi Yamasaki and Toshiharu Makino, from the Energy Technology Research Institute (ETRI) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). The scientists worked in cooperation with the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and Japanese industrial diamond producer Syntek. The sterilization application was developed with lighting and optical applications developer Iwasaki Electric.

The diamond was doped with phosphorous and boron to create n-type (electron majority carrier) and p-type (hole majority carrier) layers, respectively, on either side of an undoped intrinsic region.

The 0.3mW output power is close to what is needed for the practical application of UV sterilization. The hope is to develop portable germicidal lamps.

AIST has been developing diamond for UV emission for some time, working on the synthesis, electronic device technology, and basic physics of the material. Devices based on diamond exciton UV emission were presented in 2006. Some of this work also involved Kobe Steel, in addition to the companies and organizations mentioned above. Some of the funding originated from the ‘Research and Development of Nanodevices for Practical Utilization of Nanotechnology’ project supported by Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Last year, the scientists produced a 30μW (0.03mW) device.

The sterilization experiments were carried out with 0.1mW pulsed operation of the LEDs. The pulses were 10msec with 90msec intervals. The distance between the LED and the bacterial growth medium (agar) was about 2mm. With 100sec of UV irradiation (carried out over 1000sec), a 10mm-diameter region of the agar showed no E. coli growth after 24 hours of incubation. Outside of the irradiated region, the E. coli grew normally.

The scientists are now working to enhance the emission intensity by improving the device structure to increase the light extraction efficiency . Presently, most of the light emitted from the intrinsic layer is blocked by the titanium electrode and absorbed within the device itself. Only light generated near the circumference of the electrode escapes from the device, providing radiation for sterilization.

Further tests of the UV LED radiation’s rapid sterilization capability are also planned.

An alternative to diamond that is being developed for UV LEDs is nitride semiconductor materials. US firm Sensor Electronic Technology reported 2mW 245–247nm continuous-wave output from a 2x2 arrangement of four aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) devices.

UV News March 12, 2010: Berson UV-Tronic controller range for SCADA control systems
Filtration + Separation - Filtsep.com

The UV-Tronic+ V5 PLC controller links to a UV disinfection system’s SCADA control system, allowing users to set up the UV system’s operating parameters to match their requirements

The UV-Tronic+ V5 from Berson is based on a rugged industrial PLC with an RS485-based Modbus interface and can control up to six UV disinfection chambers simultaneously. The controller can be programd to calculate the required power setting depending on whether it is validated to DVGW, UVDGM or Berson’s default dose control settings. Software is currently being written which will also allow it to operate to NWRI parameters. The device can control conventional electro-magnetic ballast as well as Berson’s own electronic ballast.

Features of the UV-Tronic+ V5 from Berson include greatly extended monitoring and control via Modbus, increased manual control functionality to ease maintenance and servicing, and the capacity to individually calibrate UV sensors when running in DVGW mode. A modem can also be used to provide remote monitoring and diagnosis and for software upgrades.

When UV monitors on the inner wall of the UV chamber register a fall in the UV level, the UV-Tronic+ V5 is designed to trigger automatic wipers on the quartz sleeves protecting the UV lamps. The wipers remove any built-up deposits on the sleeves, ensuring uninterrupted protection against microbial contamination. A major benefit of automated wiping means no chemicals are required for cleaning, an especially important feature when it comes to drinking water disinfection.

UV News March 3, 2010: GMD transitions to Ultraviolet
Greenwood Today

Wastewater effluent at GMD's Wilson Creek WWTP
Wastewater effluent at GMD's Wilson Creek WWTP

In the interest of balancing public safety and environmental protection, the Greenwood Metropolitan District has stopped using chlorine gas to disinfect its wastewater plant water discharges in favor of using ultraviolet (UV) light.

The UV disinfection process yields significant safety advantages for GMD plant personnel, local bodies of water, and the community in general.

Approximately 20% of North American wastewater treatment plants use the UV process that instantaneously neutralizes microorganisms as they pass ultraviolet lamps submerged in the effluent discharges at both GMD’s West Alexander and Wilson Creek treatment plants.
The UV process has no impact on the chemical composition or dissolved oxygen level of the water discharged from the plants. Downstream communities also benefit from GMD’s transition to UV disinfection as the process creates no carcinogenic by-products and eliminates chlorine resistant protozoa that might otherwise find their way into the water intakes of these communities.

The UV disinfection process also helps insure GMD’s wastewater treatment plants will be in compliance with ever tightening state and national wastewater regulations, and will operate in the most cost efficient manner for its customers.

UV News February 24, 2010: Siemens introduce the LaboStar and LaboStar TWF deionization water purification systems
Workingwithwater.net ~ Water Purification

The LaboStar system purifies water from a pre-purified water source, while the LaboStar TWF system purifies water from a tap feed source to produce ASTM Type 1 water

Each deionization water purification system from Siemens includes a positively charged 0.2 micron bacterial/biological sterile filter which allows the system to produce ultrapure water with endotoxin levels of less than 0.001 EU/ml.

For applications that require low total organic carbon (TOC) levels, both the LaboStar system and LaboStar TWF system are available with ultraviolet (UV) sterilization and an enhanced-organic-removal deionization (DI) ‘polishing’ cartridge.

The LaboStar system incorporates two DI cartridges and optional UV which polish the feed water from reverse osmosis (RO) or DI pretreatment, or a combination of RO plus DI or RO plus continuous electrodeionization (CEDI) pretreatment.

The LaboStar TWF system is available with pre-purification product flow rates of three litres per hour, or seven litres per hour for applications with large daily use requirements. The system features a pretreatment module which produces RO quality water from a tap water feed source, and an integral 7-litre tank for storing RO-quality water from the pretreatment cartridge. Water is sent from the tank to a DI cartridge for further purification when Type I water is required at the point of use. When not in use, all LaboStar systems circulate the water through the UV and DI cartridge pack to maintain high water quality.

UV News February 24, 2010: Wärtsilä partners with UV specialist to offer BWT system

Wärtsilä Corporation and London, Ontario, headquartered Trojan Technologies have signed an exclusive agreement to jointly develop, market, and distribute a ballast water treatment product for ships. The two hope to get synergistic benefits by combining Wärtsilä's marine market presence and from Trojan Technologies' leadership and experience in developing ultraviolet treatment solutions.

Trojan Technologies is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Danaher Corporation of Washington, D.C. Trojan designs, manufactures, and sells UV systems for wastewater and drinking water facilities and for the removal of certain chemicals from water. With over 6000 municipal facilities in more than 80 countries using its technology, Trojan has the largest installed base of UV systems in the world.

The ballast water treatment product is presently in pre-production, with third-party validation to take place in late 2010. It is expected to enter the market at the end of the year.

According to the Global Ballast Water Convention, all vessels built prior to 2009 will need to install a certified ballast water treatment (BWT) system by 2014 or 2016, depending on the ballast water capacity of the vessel. Since 2009, all new vessels are required to install a BWT system. For the convention to come into full force, it must be ratified by 30 countries representing 35 per cent of the global fleet's deadweight tonnage. Currently 21 countries representing 23 per cent of the tonnage requirement have ratified, and full ratification is expected to occur in 2011.

"Ballast Water Treatment is becoming an important item on the environmental agenda for our customers, and therefore also for us," says Roger Holm, Vice President, Solutions Management, Wärtsilä Services. "Moving into this field is a natural step for Wärtsilä, and one that continues the development of our Environmental Services portfolio."

"Trojan is excited to partner with Wärtsilä in this endeavor," says Marvin DeVries, President of Trojan Technologies. "Trojan has a long history of innovation and leadership in the global UV industry, and we believe that our water treatment expertise, combined with Wärtsilä's strong presence in the marine industry, will enable the two companies to play a significant role in providing a compact, cost-effective and high performance system to address the emerging ballast water treatment market."

UV News February 18, 2010: Smelly pool air could be eliminated at Newport News center
Dailypress.com - By Joe Lawlor

The stinky air is about to be zapped.

Newport News appears to be on the verge of solving the air quality problems at the Brittingham-Midtown Community Center pool.

Residents brought the issue before the City Council last week, urging the council to install an ultraviolet light system that would greatly reduce chloramine levels in the pool. When chloramines mix with perspiration, it releases a gas into the air that can cause breathing problems, according to the USA Swimming Web site.

Michael Poplawski, the city's parks and recreation director, said he looked into the issue, and the city will "strongly consider" purchasing an ultraviolet light system.

"We're pushing forward with the ultraviolet light," said Poplawski, who added that he expects to have a proposal before the City Council for its meeting next week. The estimated cost is $50,000.

Poplawski said the city is taking other measures to reduce chloramine levels, such as fixing the air conditioning units and enforcing showers before swimmers go into the pool. Showering with soap reduces body oils that would otherwise combine with chloramine, adding to the smell. Poplawski said opening the roof panels also helps by mixing in fresh air, but they don't open the panels as much in the winter.

Rebecca Snodgrass, 15, of Isle of Wight County, and a swimmer at the pool, said she would like to return to training more at Midtown's Olympic-sized pool, as she hopes to compete on a college swim team one day. Breathing and coughing problems have forced her to cut back on her training at Midtown.

UV News February 12, 2010: Calgon Carbon Adds a New Niche Business Line

Calgon Carbon (CCC) acquired Hyde Marine, Inc., a manufacturer of systems that utilize ultraviolet light technology to treat marine ballast water. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Hyde Marine’s Hyde Guardian™ system, which employs stacked disk and ultraviolet light technology to filter and disinfect ballast water, offers cost, safety, and technological advantages. Guardian has received Type Approval from Lloyd’s Register on behalf of the U.K. Maritime and Coast Guard Agency. Type Approval confirms compliance with the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments [BWMC].

BWMC, which was adopted by the International Maritime Organization in 2004, addresses the transportation of potentially harmful organisms through ballast water. The regulation is scheduled to be phased in globally over a ten-year period beginning in 2010, and industry sources estimate that it will require treatment of ballast water from more than 40,000 vessels by 2020.

At the start of the year, Calgon Carbon acquired Zwicky Denmark and Sweden, a long-term distributor of Calgon's activated carbon products in Europe with 2008 sales of $4.2 million.

This latest acquisition adds to the businesses that Calgon Carbon currently operates in through its the three Business segments - Activated Carbon and Service, Equipment, and Consumer. The company has grown its revenues since 2003 at a compounded average growth rate of close to 10%. As overall wealth and standards of living improve globally, the segments that the company operates in are likely to see better growth rates. The acquisition only adds to the likely organic growth. The company seems to be a good bet for long-term portfolios. Near-term upsides may be capped by valuations at 20xFY10E earnings.

Calgon Carbon provides services, products, and solutions for purifying water and air in the United States and internationally.

The Activated Carbon and Service segment manufactures granular activated carbon for use in applications to remove organic compounds from water, air, and other liquids and gases. It also offers leasing, monitoring, and maintenance of carbon adsorption equipment. In addition, this segment provides carbon reactivation, handling, and transportation.

The Equipment segment offers systems to purify air and water. Its carbon equipment is used for volatile organic compound emissions control, air stripper off-gases, and landfill gas emissions, as well as for process purification, wastewater treatment, groundwater remediation, and de-chlorination. This segment employs proprietary ISEP (Ionic Separator) continuous ion exchange units for the purification of products in the food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries. Its ISEP units are also used to remove nitrate and perchlorate contaminants from drinking water. In addition, this segment offers UV equipment to disinfect drinking and waste water, as well, and produces odor control equipment to control odors at municipal wastewater treatment facilities and pumping stations. As of January 31, 2009, the company had a sales backlog of $22.3 million.

The Consumer segment manufactures and sells carbon cloth for the medical and specialty markets, as well as offers PreZerve storage products to protect and preserve jewelry, and AllGone to adsorb odors and impurities from the air. Calgon Carbon Corporation serves potable water, industrial process, food, environmental water and air, and specialty markets.

UV News February 02, 2010: UV LEDs promise improved lifespan, durability
Eetasia.com - EE Times Europe, By Julien Happich

Lumex has developed the QuasarBrite UV family of LEDs touted to provide a 10x longer lifespan, a tight beam angle, enhanced durability and up to 50 percent cost savings compared to alternative technologies.

The RoHs-compliant QuasarBrite UV LEDs are available in 385-, 405- and 415nm wavelengths at 4- to 6mW in a through-hole format.

The QuasarBrite UV technology is well-suited for a wide range of applications including bacterial and superficial sterilization for medical device technologies related to phototherapy, dental, and dermatology equipment, but also industrial control device technology related to leak and biohazard detection or forensic applications related to counterfeit detection and forensic analysis of bodily fluids.

"Despite the many benefits of UV LED technology, adoption has been limited in the past due to the fact that the materials used in the epoxy LED lens degraded the lifespan of UV LEDs to less than 5,000 hours," explained Jeff Oliveros, director of engineering at Lumex.

"Having replaced the epoxy lenses with a robust TO-46 package with glass lens, QuasarBrite UV LEDs now last at least 10x longer, providing a lifespan of more than 50,000 hours."

In addition to enhanced life span, QuasarBrite UV LEDs provide several key benefits compared to alternative technologies like cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs). QuasarBrite UV LEDs provide a uniform beam pattern. To match this performance CCFLs would require a secondary lens resulting in additional cost and space investment.

Additionally, QuasarBrite UV LEDs do not use the hazardous mercury material found in CCFL technology and are more durable in their design, thereby significantly reducing maintenance costs.

Finally, Lumex' UV LEDs have up to 70 percent lower energy consumption than CCFLs. These factors combined allow the company to boast up to 50 percent cost savings compared to CCFLs.

Samples of these devices are available from stock, with custom production quantities in eight to ten weeks and standard production quantities in six to eight weeks.

UV News January 26, 2010: UV system enhances water quality
100 Mile House Free Press - By Ken Alexander

District of 100 Mile House councilors took the first step in enhancing the safety of the community’s drinking water by awarding a UV upgrade to its water treatment plant...

The district’s water system includes 21 kilometers of pipe and mainly uses Bridge Creek as its water source. It also has a stand-by well that’s used occasionally to supplement the primary supply.

The plant, which was constructed in 1985 in response to a Giardia outbreak, uses “slow sand filters” and chlorination to treat the raw water from the creek. The district’s system efficiently deactivates or removes Cryptosporidium — a protozoan pathogen that causes a diarrheal illness.

Adding UV lighting to the system, Strain says, enhances the potability of the water as it provides a second barrier. Ultraviolet light is at the invisible, violet end of the light spectrum, he says.

Ultraviolet radiation effectively inactivates common protozoan pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium, Strain explains, especially when applied as part of a multi-barrier treatment chain.

“Research has found no evidence that Cryptosporidium or viruses can repair themselves, following UV disinfection in drinking water treatment.”

The UV enhancement is a requirement to meet Interior Health standards, he adds.

Since the Walkerton outbreak, Strain adds, water provision requirements and regulations have become more stringent.

In May 2000, an E. coli outbreak in the water system in Walkerton, Ont. was directly blamed for the deaths of seven residents of the community of 5,000 and 2,500 others became extremely ill.

Strain notes that when 100 Mile’s system was installed more than 20 years ago, slow sand filtration was the top-of-the-line system.

UV News January 12, 2010: UV water treatment minimizes chemicals
Pacetoday.com.au - by Peter Mills

Advanced ultra-violet (UV) water treatment technology being introduced to Australia by CST Wastewater Solutions has demonstrated its potential for applications here after being installed on a semi-arid Caribbean island.

Ten of Berson’s InLine UV disinfection systems – distributed in Australia by CST – were installed on the island of Aruba, where eight systems are used to disinfect drinking water and two are used to treat greywater prior to discharge.

The island opted for UV instead of chlorine as part of its ‘non-chemical’ approach to water treatment, says CST Wastewater Solutions managing director, Michael Bambridge.

Five of the Berson UV units are installed at the Balashi water treatment plant, the site of gold mill ruins near Aruba’s capital, Oranjestad. Operated by W.E.B. Aruba N.V., which supplies drinking water and electricity to the island’s residents and businesses, Balashi also houses the world’s second largest desalination plant. Because Aruba has a semi-arid climate, desalination is necessary to supply its growing population with much-needed water.

Chemical-free desal
Following the desalination process, the water passes through the UV systems before being transported to seven storage tanks situated at elevated locations around the island. The UV units, which are installed outdoors and controlled by DGtronic microprocessors, each disinfect 400m3 of water per hour, rising to 600m3/h during peak flow conditions.

No chlorine is used at any stage of the water treatment process. Chlorine was originally considered as an alternative to UV but was rejected after concerns over costs and safety. W.E.B. Aruba also has an anti-chemical policy.

Two of the seven storage tanks situated around the island are also fitted with Berson’s InLine UV systems, providing an additional disinfection step prior to distribution. It is expected that all the tanks will eventually be fitted with UV. One of the storage tanks is situated in the harbour and supplies cruise ships with UV-treated drinking water.

In addition to disinfecting drinking water, two Berson UV systems are also used to treat greywater. One unit is installed at each of the island’s two wastewater treatment plants and the treated greywater is used to irrigate the island’s two golf courses. The Dr Horacio Hospital on the island also uses UV technology.

Berson’s customer service manager Danny van Kuringen says there is a lot of interest in Berson’s UV systems on the island, especially from businesses wanting to use greywater for hosing down buildings. “It is very dusty on Aruba, so keeping the outside of buildings clean is a real concern for many companies. We have also recently supplied one of our new InLine+ UV systems to disinfect drinking water for the airport.”

Re-using wastewater
Berson’s compact InLine medium pressure UV systems use MultiWave lamps, which emit a wide spectrum of UV wavelengths with a very high energy output, causing the total and permanent deactivation of micro-organisms. The small size of the lamps means that they are positioned perpendicularly to the flow of liquid, increasing disinfection efficiency and reducing the overall size of the disinfection unit.

Berson's InLine+ medium pressure closed vessel UV systems recently became the first in the world to gain formal approval for wastewater re-use applications. They underwent extensive third party testing by Carollo Engineers in the Unites States of America before being formally approved for post-filtration and reverse osmosis applications by the California Department of Public Health (Title-22 validation).

The systems are now validated for wastewater re-use applications in accordance with AwwaRF/NWRI guidelines, which are internationally respected and some of the toughest in the world, says Bambridge. The guidelines are also the only ones offering guidelines on sewage treatment, which is a key factor in Australia.

“The Berson technology used on Aruba clearly has potential in Australia as well, because we not only have the same pressures on water in semi-arid areas, but also are looking increasingly to desalination as an alternative source of water supply,” said Bambridge.

UV News January 4, 2010: Wastewater Plant Builds Around UV as the Cornerstone of Treatment

The same building atop the old chlorine disinfection tank now houses the two UV 
The former chlorine tank was retrofitted with a UV disinfection system. The same building atop the old chlorine disinfection tank now houses the two UV channels.

Advanced technologies have become the building blocks of a modern wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). New generation controls, treatment systems and disinfection methods can improve virtually every link along the process chain, from the control of peak flow, to disinfection, nutrient removal, effluent quality and even sludge management.

The award-winning plant serving Carmel, Indiana, is a case in point.

Carmel is one of the affluent edge cities on the north side of Indianapolis. The rapid growth in recent years has demanded farsighted planning and investment by the community of approximately 70,000 residents, said Edward Wolfe, operations manager, who has witnessed many changes during his 33-year career in wastewater management. Craig Carter, the plant manager and another 33-year veteran, has 25 personnel working at the facility, including four Class IV and the rest with Class I to III certifications. Jordan Kleinsmith, assistant plant manager, has 25 years experience and is always eager to point out the features of their pacesetting treatment complex.

The 12 mgd facility has earned a string of environmental awards while removing risks and lowering operational costs. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that this progressive facility attracts frequent visit from other public works officials and designers who are interested in the technologies that contribute so much to the environmentally compatible operations.

The plant has a lengthy list of awards, including the US Environmental Protection Agency recognition as Best Managed Municipal Plant in its class. In 2008, the National League of Cities recognized the Carmel WWTP for "best practice" in process operations.

The plant also earned the Indiana Governor's Award for Environmental Excellence last year after replacing chemical disinfection with an ultraviolet (UV) system. Other awards listed on the city's website clearly rank this plant among the nation's best managed facilities.

Advancements in technologies and management practices are light years ahead of the era when wastewater lagoons and harsh chemicals were standard for removing pathogens. In fact, the plant's management considers the application of UV disinfection as the cornerstone of a series of upgrades to the WWTP in recent years. These increased the capacity from 8.8 mgd to 12 mgd and have made the facility a model of environmental compliance.

The upgrades follow a comprehensive Facility Plan developed by Jones & Henry, an Ohio-based engineering firm that has worked with the city since 1992. The first project replaced the existing static screens with two cylindrical fine screens and screenings compaction. Following those initial steps came the addition of two primary settling tanks, return sludge pumps, hydraulic modifications, and new Sanitaire fine bubble diffusers in all aeration tanks, along with Turblex blowers and a DO control system.

That set the stage for perhaps the most important upgrade – a 36.0 mgd, WEDECO ultraviolet disinfection system completed in the summer of 2005. The upgrade followed Indiana Department of Environmental Management's mandate to remove chlorine from treated effluent before release into the White River, the receptor for discharges from Carmel and other municipal WWTPs.

Prior to the UV system, the Carmel utility had resorted to scrubbing chlorine from the effluent using sulfur dioxide during the mandated disinfection season of April 1 to October 31, when the state E. coli limit is set at not more than 235 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 milliliters (ml). The gaseous chemicals were kept on site in four, one-ton cylinders for chlorine and two to three one-ton cylinders of sulfur dioxide. As most other plants have experienced, a minor amount of residual chlorine always remained and the procedure released low levels of sulfuric acid that posed an additional risk to aquatic life.

Both chemicals also presented the additional risk of a handling accident causing a release into the atmosphere.

"Wastewater plant operators at Carmel and elsewhere have confronted added safety concerns with the advent of dechlorination," said Dan Miller, an expert in the field with Jones & Henry. "They have to handle another hazardous chemical which has public safety concerns beyond their immediate plant environments.

"UV typically works under most plant conditions. Larger plants should pilot test and as a minimum, smaller plants should have a collimated beam test completed to measure the anticipated dosage requirements." he added. "Plants with low inflow and infiltration have much less capital investment since they typically experience lower peaks. One factor to consider is the use of iron compounds to remove phosphorous at some plants in which case they may wish to pilot test the technology."

The city was evaluating some options to improve the disinfection system, which required doubling the amount of chlorine and sulfur dioxide stored on site, when the 9/11 terrorist attack presented the grim scenario of terrorists unleashing chlorine gas or sulfur dioxide across heavily populated areas of Carmel, Fishers and Northern Indianapolis.

"That triggered a heightened interest in alternative disinfection methods," Kleinsmith said. "We became confident that changing to UV disinfection at our plant would resolve the twofold concerns of regulatory compliance and risk reductions without compromising our effluent quality.

"Working closely with Jones & Henry Engineers, the department established a group of six evaluators once the decision was made to adopt UV disinfection instead of chemical contact. The group considered three UV system manufacturers, conducting plant and factory tours, before rating each system on a matrix," Kleinsmith said.

The resulting score favored the WEDECO UV system supplied by ITT Water & Wastewater. The system is equipped with an automatic cleaning feature that keeps the quartz sleeves crystal clear and sustains pathogen kill. A building equipped with an overhead crane was built atop an existing chlorine contact tank retrofitted to enclose the UV system that is split in half to create two channels for alternating operation and redundant backup.

There are a total of 288 low pressure high intensity UV lamps divided into two channels. The lamps are among the most energy-efficient in the market and warranted for 12,000 hours of operation. One channel handles the typical 8 to 13 mgd flow which undergoes added settling before passing through the UV channels at a desirable 3 to 5 mg/l suspended solids. The UV system has the ability to vary the output of the lamps based on measured UV intensity and flow rate. That way it uses the lowest possible amount of electricity while always applying a sufficient UV dose. When the flow reaches 15 mgd for 45 minutes the second channel of lights is activated to receive the split flow. The total system easily handles 35 mgd, Kleinsmith said.

Using the previous chemical disinfection, the plant typically could achieve E. coli readings ranging from 100 to 235 cfu per 100 ml, he said. By comparison, the UV system during the past disinfection season normally achieved single-digit readings and a high of 54 cfu per 100 ml, all well below the state's 235 E. coli maximum.

UV disinfection also offered economic benefits and complies with the city commitment to implement green initiatives in all departments, emphasizes Operations Manager Wolfe. The WEDECO system and infrastructure changes at the time cost approximately $1.6 million. Up until then, chlorine and sulfur dioxide had cost $30,000 per year, plus operational maintenance costs.

Teresa Lewis, administration and laboratory assistant plant manager, a 27 year veteran, recognized a time and cost savings could occur in the lab using UV disinfection instead of chlorine and sulfur dioxide. Their elimination would reduce the amount of lab testing, the final effluent samples would not require testing for residual chlorine and then dechlorinated prior to conducting CBOD tests. UV would also eliminate having dechlorinating agent in the E. coli sample collection bottles. While eliminating the chemical purchase would not quickly offset the UV investment, the planned facility improvements to continue using them were no longer necessary. Furthermore, the elimination of the contingent risks with chemical disinfection – and environmental benefits – outweigh a simple cost-benefit payback analysis, Wolfe added.

The city took an equally big step by converting to Class A from Class B sludge, the latter once hauled 40 miles away for land application. The automated biopasteurization process that produces Carmel's Class A biosolids was the first installation of its kind in the United States and uses an automated pre-digestion pasteurization interfaced with the plant's anaerobic digesters.

The resulting Class A biosolids are a desirable resource for agricultural and soil blenders without increased volumes, maximized the use of existing digester facilities, on-site use of byproduct methane gas and compatibility with the plant's site and operations.

The application was an ACEC Outstanding Award winner and has been added to the "Best Practices" database for the National League of Cities.

In the UV disinfection channels only the ultraviolet bulbs and sensors are submerged
In each of two UV disinfection channels, only the bulbs and sensors are submerged. All other electrical components such as the ballasts are away from the water in the temperature regulated control room. Visible here are the flex metal conduits that deliver power to the UV bulbs from the junction boxes directly above, where they plug in. Each channel contains 144 UV bulbs, totaling 288 bulbs for the entire disinfection system.

The first phase of the system consisted of three, 3300-gallon tanks that function 24/7 in a sequential mode of fill/react/drawdown batches that can reach 56,000 gpd. The solids in the react vessel are heated to 160-deg F. for one hour, with adjustments made for seasonal variables. After advancing through an anaerobic digester and then centrifuges, the pathogen-reduced sludge is typically 14 wet tpd, 3.1 tpd of biosolids at 22 percent solids. The sludge management of the pasteurization system was further enhanced by the Phase II construction of the solar drying facility that was partially underwritten by a state grant. The energy-conserving facility handles approximately 25 percent of the material.

Jones & Henry studied several alternatives to further use the methane gas and create a dryer biosolid product. The review included: sludge drying, microturbines, hot water heat derived from other plant buildings, and construction of a "greenhouse" type of solar drying building with supplemental heat. Solar drying was selected based on its simplicity, continual use of the digester gas, eligibility for the $50,000 state energy grant award, and the "green" nature of using solar heat as a drying method.

A nearby sod farm receives the Class A sludge but other businesses can haul the 75 percent dry solids at the plant's solar building .The utility has promoted the availability of the solar-dried Class A material by distributing samples of the solar-dried byproduct at the city's Farmer's Market and encouraging ratepayers to claim larger volumes at the plant. The change to Class A process saves the city approximately $200,000 per year once spent for fuel costs, labor, equipment maintenance and permits compared to the previous Class B sludge operations.

Furthermore, the city could ultimately market the Class A sludge and actually generate a revenue stream from a byproduct that once presented just added disposal expense.

UV News December 8, 2009: Stimulus Funding Helps Move UV Project Forward
WaterWorld.com - By Ron Brown

The city of Bremerton, WA, is currently planning its compliance approach for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR), which was promulgated by the USEPA in January 2006. This regulation required treatment enhancements for the city's Union River surface water supply, which is currently operating under the filtration avoidance criteria of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR).

The city proposed implementing a new multiple-barrier disinfection approach that consists of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation followed by free chlorination. In addition to the disinfection improvements for LT2ESWTR compliance, the city also proposed other system modifications and improvements designed to enhance surface water supply flexibility and improve operations associated with surface water flow diversions to the Twin Lakes Reservoir, which is an aquifer recharge basin that supplies numerous nearby groundwater wells in their water system.

The project was given a jump start when money became available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The ARRA funds made it possible for the city to proceed with the project with minimal rate impacts to the city, which has been strongly impacted by the recent economic downturn.

Current System
The City of Bremerton currently relies on a combination of surface water and groundwater to optimize the balance among water demand, supply and quality. At present, the Union River provides about 60 percent of the city's annual water supply, with the balance provided by several groundwater wells.

Due to the source water quality and the city's comprehensive watershed control program and effective land and forestry management, the Union River supply has been successfully operated under SWTR filtration avoidance requirements. For this project, it is assumed that the Union River source will retain its unfiltered status and that filtration will not be required for LT2ESWTR compliance or other drinking water regulations in the foreseeable future.

The LT2ESWTR requires that unfiltered surface water supplies be disinfected to inactivate Cryptosporidium, and that the treatment include a minimum of two separate disinfectants to meet the combined pathogen inactivation requirements of SWTR (2- or 3-log Giardia lamblia) and LT2SWTR (2- or 3-log Cryptosporidium). The application of chlorine disinfection alone, as currently practiced, would not be sufficient as it is not effective at inactivating Cryptosporidium. Although the City of Bremerton has never found Cryptosporidium in its surface water, LT2ESWTR compliance requires the inactivation of Cryptosporidium in unfiltered surface water supplies

The city's Union River surface supply originates at the Casad Reservoir. Water is released into a river and flows to the McKenna Falls Intake Facility, where it is screened, monitored for turbidity, flow-metered and chlorinated using one-ton gas containers for primary disinfection. The treated water enters a transmission main and flows through about 37,600 feet of piping to Reservoir 4, the current point of entry to the distribution system (W256 pressure zone). Travel time in the transmission main provides more than enough chlorine contact time to satisfy SWTR treatment requirements.

Project drivers
The city retained HDR to provide engineering design and construction support services for the Ultraviolet Disinfection Treatment Facility project. The objectives of the water system's improvement project were to:

 • Provide multiple-barrier disinfection of the unfiltered Union River surface supply to ensure compliance with both SWTR and LT2ESWTR and enhance drinking water quality.
 • Give the city flexibility to supply treated Union River water to the W517 zone in addition to the W256 zone currently used. The W517 zone is currently considered by the Department of Health to be a separate water system.
 • Improve operations associated with flow control and diversion of unchlorinated Union River Water to the Twin Lakes Reservoir recharge basin.

Proposed Solution
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) was the recommended and chosen disinfection approach for LT2ESWTR compliance. Further evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of various configurations of UV systems such as low pressure/high output versus medium pressure was conducted. The city chose to preselect and procure a medium pressure system after soliciting proposals and bids through a competitive process.

Chlorination options were evaluated including bulk and onsite generated liquid sodium hypochlorite. HDR recommended the installation of a bulk liquid system at the new treatment facility. The new hypochlorite system would provide for SWTR compliance required and the maintenance of a chlorine residual in the treated water distribution system.

To achieve other objectives for the project, HDR investigated the relocation of the point of chlorination that would allow diversion into the Twin Lakes reservoir for recharge and provide treated water into the city's water system. It was decided that siting the new treatment facilities adjacent to the Twin Lakes control valve facility would facilitate the system flexibility desired by the city. In addition, the city was concerned with the continued use of gaseous chlorine in a location that was closer to more populated areas and the city's golf course.

The UV and the liquid chlorination systems were installed in a new, hardened facility to provide a greater level of security for this critical component of the city's potable water system.

Stimulus Funding
This project was made possible through the ARRA stimulus funding program. The construction of the system improvements not only added jobs in the local economy during construction but will also ensure compliance with state and federal water quality requirements by the city's water system for years to come.

UV News December 4, 2009: UV maintenance is critical in small systems
WaterTechOnline.com - by Eric Peterson

Today’s ultraviolet (UV) systems, including those used in small community and industrial water systems, are far superior to yesterday’s legacy systems. But that doesn’t mean legacy systems are ready for the trash heap. Many UV systems that are 20 to 30 years old can still operate as well as they did when they were installed. They just require a little “TLC” to get them back to their original operating condition.

A well-maintained system is all that is required. Proper maintenance goes beyond the obvious annual lamp change-out, the cleaning of the interior of the quartz sleeve, and a sensor adjustment. A new preventive maintenance (PM) perspective can be applied to any existing UV system.

Points of a good PM program
Where to start? Begin with the owner’s manual. Most reputable UV manufacturers provide a manual with each unit. It should contain a well-laid-out PM schedule. If not, consider the following guidelines.

Design material. UV light is aggressive and will oxidize or corrode just about everything it comes into contact with, including improperly finished stainless steel. If a UV system is not manufactured with high-quality material and is not properly maintained, it will cause maintenance issues down the road.

UV lamps. All UV units incorporate a single or multiple UV lamp(s), the units’ critical component, into their designs. Each unit requires periodic lamp replacement. While many lamps will continue to operate well beyond their stated life, a lamp’s performance declines if it operates for too long.

Typically, lamp replacement should be scheduled at no later than 4,000 to 5,000 operating hours for medium-pressure systems and 9,000 hours for low-pressure systems. Medium-pressure systems with variable output power settings will now achieve a 9,000-hour lamp life. Whatever system you have, do yourself a favor and don’t wait for the lamp to burn out before replacing it.

A physical process called solarization eventually blocks UV light from being emitted into the water stream, rendering it ineffective by preventing vital UV rays from penetrating the water stream. As a lamp becomes solarized, it turns slightly brown in color and should be replaced.

Mercury disposal. All UV lamps contain mercury. More companies are becoming environmentally conscious and looking for responsible waste disposal programs for their lamps.

If you are a small-system operator, be sure the water treatment service company has a program in place to properly dispose of the lamps. Expect to pay a fee per lamp to have it picked up and the mercury inside it properly extracted, recycled and disposed of.

UL-listed equipment. Most reputable UV equipment is UL-listed in the United States. A UV manufacturer typically receives their UL listing on the entire unit, not on each individual component of the unit. Should non-genuine UV replacement parts be incorporated into the equipment, the unit’s UL listing would become void. For this reason it is not recommended that non-genuine OEM replacement parts be incorporated into UV systems.

Before you decide to incorporate the slightly less-expensive generic aftermarket replacement parts into your UV system, check with your risk management team and insurance provider to determine if the risks associated with this decision are worth the relatively few dollars saved.

Quartz sleeves. The quartz sleeves are probably the most abused components of a UV system, yet they are one of the most critical for delivering UV rays into the water stream.

Sleeves provide a protective barrier around the lamp so that the lamp can operate at its optimal temperature. For the quartz sleeve to maximize a unit’s performance, both the interior and exterior of the sleeve must be cleaned periodically, even in UV units installed in ultra-pure water systems. All quartz sleeves are susceptible to fouling.

Cleaning frequency of quartz sleeves will be site-specific and directly related to water quality. UV systems that are installed in post-reverse osmosis/deionization (RO/DI) locations will require cleaning much less frequently than units installed on raw water or surface water systems. As a general rule of thumb, a post-RO/DI system should have the quartz sleeves cleaned once a year.

Plan on cleaning quartz sleeves quarterly on post-activated carbon systems and more frequently for hard water applications exceeding 5 grains of hardness.

Sleeve replacement. Quartz sleeves, just like UV lamps, wear out over time. Quartz will lose its ability to transmit UV rays into the reactor chamber. To maximize the optimal performance of any UV unit, manufacturers recommend that the quartz sleeves be replaced with each lamp replacement. Most system operators typically replace their quartz sleeves every three to five years in disinfection applications, and replace them every one to three years in TOC-reduction, ozone-destruction and UV-dechlorination applications.

Reactor chamber. Many system operators and service companies overlook the importance of cleaning the interior of the UV reactor chamber. The inside of a reactor chamber acts as a mirror to reflect UV light back into the water stream. When it becomes fouled or scaled, it loses its reflective qualities. The interior of a reactor chamber may need to be cleaned physically. A unit’s performance will suffer if this important step is ignored.

Replacement parts. Don’t forget to stock a few replacement lamps, quartz sleeves and O-rings for those unexpected emergencies. Quartz sleeves are like glass. They are fragile and they tend to break when improperly handled or abused. If replacement quartz sleeves are not readily available and one breaks, a complete water system could be shut down until a replacement is located.

Imagine a commercial/industrial customer’s cost of lost revenue, when, while they normally produce $100,000 to $1 million worth of product an hour, one or several replacement quartz sleeves are not on hand. Don’t be so frugal that a whole system has to shut down due to the lack of a $40 to $100 quartz sleeve.

Matched power supply. This is critical to the overall performance of UV equipment. UV manufacturers have gone to great lengths and expense to develop power supplies for their specific equipment to maximize the unit’s output. They want the surface-wall temperature of their lamp to operate at a particular temperature for a particular application, and they have to drive the lamp at a certain voltage and current to achieve the desired temperature.

When original ballasts burn out, some operators have found that off-the-shelf generic ballasts easily can be substituted for the original equipment. Don’t make this assumption, because the equipment’s performance will likely suffer. Plan to replace their ballasts every five to seven years.

Lamp sockets. This is another critical UV component that is often overlooked. Lamp sockets deliver the necessary voltage to the UV lamp to produce the output. Like everything else, lamp sockets wear out over time. Plan on replacing them every three to five years.

O-rings and gaskets. These maintain the hydraulic integrity of the equipment. Yet, O-rings and gaskets are often overlooked in the annual PM schedule and are not replaced until the unit starts leaking. Think about it: O-rings and gaskets are usually directly exposed to UV light, and in a short period of time the elastomers of which they are made become brittle, crack and leak.

Change the O-rings once a year and the gaskets every two years to avoid leaks and the potential leaching of contaminants into your critical systems.

Dirt and dust. A UV unit incorporates a number of critical electrical connections in the unit design. In many cases, cooling fans are used to move air across heat-sensitive components. After two to three years of continuous operation, the inside of a UV unit’s electrical enclosure becomes filled with dust, dirt and grime. Add a small, persistent water leak and you will have quite a mess on your hands. Over time, this dirt and dust works itself into the electrical connection, reducing the integrity of that connection.

Set up an annual PM schedule to vacuum out the inside of each electrical enclosure. For units that incorporate a built-in dust fan, don’t forget to clean or replace that filter as well. Your unit will be easier to maintain and will operate more efficiently.

Intensity meter and sensor. Not too long ago, the only option available to measure UV intensity was a meter that provided a zero to 100 percent relative intensity measurement. This meter design was far from accurate, but it did provide a rough idea of the lamp’s condition. That is, if it were allowed to operate as initially intended.

No one likes to see UV intensity below that 100 percent level, although that’s what happens as a UV lamp ages. Too many individuals will go around and adjust, or shall we say recalibrate, the intensity up to that magical 100 percent level. This process tended to defeat the purpose of the sensor as a viable tool:

In a perfectly operating system, one would clean their quartz sleeves, install new UV lamps, clean the UV intensity probe and reassemble the unit. With the lamps on and operating at their correct operating temperature, the intensity meter would be adjusted to 100 percent. After 72 hours of operation, the new lamp’s intensity would drop off until the lamp’s output stabilized. This required a technician to come back and adjust the intensity meter back to 100 percent. Over the course of 8,000 to 9,000 hours, the UV intensity would drop by 40 percent from that new, adjusted intensity level. At a 60 percent intensity level, the unit would be telling you that either the quartz sleeves were dirty, one or more of the lamps had failed, or all the lamps needed to be replaced because they had reached their end of lamp life.

Incorporating a relative intensity meter and probe into your UV system is no longer considered “best practice.” If you still operate a system with one of these antiquated instruments, the time has come to bring your UV unit into the 21st century.

Digital intensity meters that read absolute intensity have been available for several years. They are far superior to the old 0-100 percent analog meters they replaced. Digital meters can be hot-water sterilized or steam sterilized, and some can even be provided with an optional NIST certificate. It’s one of the best upgrades you can make on older units. Plan to replace UV intensity probes every three to five years.

Final thoughts
A properly maintained UV system will dramatically extend the useful life and performance of your customer’s investment. A UV system is one of the most cost-effective components of any water treatment system. Follow your owner’s manuals for advice on establishing your own PM schedules, and if you are not sure how to maintain a system, contact an experienced professional for advice.

UV News December 2, 2009: Transit Being Proactive to Prevent H1N1
City of Fayetteville, NC - Media Release

The Fayetteville Area System of Transit (FAST) is being proactive in preventing the H1N1 flu. The bus system is beginning a process of disinfecting vehicles with Sporicidin, a product that eradicates viruses.

The disinfectant will be sprayed in vehicles after routes are completed. Vehicles are safe to ride the next day of service, following each spray application. Staff will apply the disinfectant once a month unless there is an apparent need to do more frequently.

Fare boxes, railings and other apparatus will be cleaned with Sporicidin wipes on a consistent basis.

“This is a way to protect our passengers and operators,” said Donald Pike, FAST safety and training officer. “We wanted to take this measure because of the seriousness of H1N1 and because we value our customers and operators.”

Other bus carriers across the nation are utilizing Sporicidin on their vehicles.

“It’s been effective elsewhere and is proven to help prevent the spread of germs, so we’re taking advantage and being proactive in every way possible,” Pike said.

UV News December 1, 2009: Berson installs 10 ultraviolet disinfection systems on Aruba
Business News Americas / by Catherine Setterfield

Netherlands-based ultraviolet (UV) manufacturing company Berson UV-techniek has completed the installation of 10 UV water disinfection systems on the Caribbean island of Aruba, the company's customer service manager Danny van Kuringen told BNamericas.

The systems use lamps emitting high-energy UV wavelengths to kill microorganisms in the water, which removes the need for chemicals such as chlorine in the purification process.

The system is particularly suited to Aruba, as the island has banned the use of chemicals in the purification of potable water, Van Kuringen said.

Five units were installed near capital Oranjestad at the Balashi potable water plant, operated by local firm WEB Aruba, which provides both energy and potable water for the island's 100,000 inhabitants.

The rest of the units are located around the island, with a UV system at the harbor supplying purified water for cruise ships. Each of the units has the capacity to disinfect 600m3/h, according to a company release.

While the majority of the units are used to disinfect drinking water, Berson systems are also used to treat greywater before it is used in processes such as irrigation, road cleaning and for cleaning the outside of buildings, Van Kuringen said.

Berson systems are also being used on the neighboring islands of Curaçao and Bonaire, Van Kuringen said.

UV News November 13, 2009: Redditt water system on target for spring
Kenoradailyminerandnews.com, By Mike Aiken

Redditt residents could have a long-awaited water system in place next year. If all goes well with the testing of a new ultraviolet and chlorine system over the winter, they could break ground on the improved gravity-fed system next spring, according to water board member Jack Martin.

"That'll be exciting. From all the options we've looked at, it seems to best meet our needs," he said Thursday evening.

He estimated the cost of construction would be $490,000, along with total operating costs of about $1.3 million over the next 25 years. These costs would be split over the 52 properties in the community, with the possibility more homes could join in the program, Martin added.

While provincial approval from the Ministry of Environment isn't technically required, the proposal will go to them for review, Martin noted.

The project to provide safe drinking water to about 50 homes connected to the community's 80-year-old water distribution system is supported by $550,000 in federal/provincial infrastructure and economic stimulus funding.

UV News November 9, 2009: City asked to ratify '06 rate hike
Calaverasenterprise.com, By Krissi Krob

In order for Angels Camp to get federal stimulus money for upgrades to its wastewater treatment plant, ratepayers in the city are going to have to approve rate hikes that were implemented in 2006.

State-mandated improvements to the plant will include installing ultraviolet treatment capabilities, enabling discharge into Angels Creek in the event Holman Reservoir becomes too full. The project was initially going to funded with a $3 million loan and $1 million grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, but the city recently learned that it was eligible to receive $3.1 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. However, that money comes with some strings attached.

One of those strings is that the federal government is requiring the city to ask some homeowners to approve a rate increase from June 2006 that raised rates for residential meters to $39.96 per month. The council approved the increase a month before the state Supreme Court decided a case regarding Proposition 218, passed by voters in 1996, which requires voter approval of some fee increases. In order to be in compliance, the feds said, it's up to those ratepayers affected by the '06 increase to give the OK two years after the fact.

The ratification does not require an election; instead property owners and people who pay sewer bills directly to the city have been notified of the proceedings and may protest the increase in writing. If more than 50 percent protest, the rates are not ratified and the federal stimulus money goes away. So far, according to City Clerk Mary Kelly, about 1,700 people have been notified and three have protested.

If more than 5 percent protest the rates, the city will have to embark on a two-year public education process, the details of which were not readily available.

The council held a workshop Tuesday to not only educate citizens about Proposition 218, but also to provide information about what the project will accomplish. Carol Woolf, chief plant operator, said the upgrades (now in the third phase) will include modifications to make control and documentation of flow rates more reliable, in addition to the UV capabilities. The plant will be able to handle 0.6 million gallons of flow in dry weather and more than 1 million in wet weather. The plant's pumps will also be upgraded.

The water is regulated under Title II, which requires filtration of water before it is discharged.

“It makes sense to go to UV,” Woolf said. “Your water quality improves.”

The city recently received a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, authorized by the clean water act, that allows the city to discharge into Angels Creek once the UV system is installed. When Mayor Jack Lynch brought up the fact that many residents are concerned about contamination of the creek, Woolf emphasized that discharge will only happen when Holman Reservoir has only 20 million gallons of storage left, in which case the water would be heavily tested to meet strict criteria for discharge into the creek. Such discharge would only be permitted during the wet-weather season, from the middle of November to the beginning of April.

“We are not allowed to discharge into the creek on a regular basis,” Woolf said, adding that in her nine years working for the city she has only seen the plant meeting discharge criteria once. The city will continue to discharge onto land.

City Engineer Gary Ghio took over the dollars-and-cents portion of the workshop, outlining what the costs will be to the city depending on the outcome of the Proposition 218 proceedings.

If the 2006 rates increase is ratified, the city will receive a $3,086,400 grant from the state's clean water revolving fund, and will have to pay back a $286,400 loan at 1 percent interest for 20 years. That amounts to an annual cost of $15,959 to the city and a total cost of $319,185. Additionally, if the city receives stimulus money it will be subject to “Buy American” restrictions on products used in the project.

If more than 50 percent of ratepayers protest the '06 increase, the city will continue with its original plan to obtain a $3 million USDA loan, which will be paid back at 4.25 percent interest for 40 years. And although the money does include a $1 million, grant, it will still come at an annual cost of $156,103 to the city and a total of $6,244,130. In addition, the city can't access the grant money until all of the loan funds have been disbursed.

Soaring water and sewer rates in Angels Camp have long been a point of contention at City Council meetings, which residents decrying the high rates they pay. When researching the USDA loan, city staff was able to reorganize funding to ensure it can pay back the loan without putting more burden on ratepayers.

“The rates will not go up at all,” Ghio said, but he and the council emphasized that not ratifying the 2006 rates will still result in a huge burden to the city, and that they were approved after a public hearing.
The public hearing for the Proposition 218 proceedings will be held during the City Council's Nov. 17 meeting, at 6 p.m. in the Angels Firehouse, 1404 Vallecito Road. While protests can be mailed to the city in writing now, they may also be made at the hearing.

City Attorney Richard Matranga had grim news for the council when asked what happens if the rates are not ratified.

“If there's more than 50 percent, excuse my vernacular, but we can kiss the grant goodbye.”

UV News October 16, 2009: Outdoor UV disinfection system from ITT

The UV Wedeco Tak 55 outdoor disinfection system treats municipal wastewater in open channels.

The Wedeco Tak 55 offers energy-saving UV disinfection in an all-weather cabinet and uses Spektrotherm UV lamps which reduces power costs by as much as 50%

Matthias Boeker, disinfection market manager for ITT Water and Wastewater said: “In more than 1,000 installations worldwide, this modular and highly flexible design has demonstrated effective, reliable performance. The Tak 55 outdoor UV System provides that same level of reliability for customers who prefer an open channel design completely installed outdoors.”

The electronic ballasts, control, power distribution and junction box of the UV Wedeco Tak 55 outdoor disinfection system are pre-wired into a compact stainless steel cabinet. The cabinet carries a 4X rating from the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and does not require any building or shelter.

The Wedeco Tak 55 outdoor system operates at high and low temperatures and includes advanced A/C for ambient temperature up to 122 degrees (50 degrees Celsius). An uninterrupted power supply keeps the PLC running during a power outage, with the recording of all alarms for approximately 20 minutes. The oxygen recycling option can reduce consumption of the Wedeco ozone system by up to 70%.

UV News October 15, 2009: Atlantium Technologies' UV System Provides U.S. Dairy Processors With the Equivalent to Heat-Pasteurized Water

HAR TUV, Israel - Atlantium Technologies, an Israeli-based water technologies company, today announced that its Hydro Optic Disinfection(TM) ultraviolet (UV) light water pasteurization and disinfection systems are now commercially available for use for regulatory compliance in the U.S. dairy industry. The announcement by Atlantium comes after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration finalized the 2009 Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO), and issued the IMS-a-47. The new rules include criteria for the use of UV to provide disinfected and pasteurized equivalent water in dairy processing. Atlantium's system is the only off-the-shelf UV system validated for all the criteria required by the PMO.

Ensuring that both products and equipment are kept free of water-borne pathogens is an ongoing challenge for dairy processors. Atlantium's environmentally-friendly Hydro-Optic Disinfection systems deliver unprecedented protection against pathogens present in water, a critical component of dairy processes. Energy-efficient and chemical-free, Atlantium's system ensures high quality, safe water at a lower cost than traditional thermal pasteurization, and now can be used to comply with the PMO requirements for pasteurized water. In addition, Atlantium's fully automated monitoring and control software and electronic recordkeeping meet PMO requirements and automatically adjust to meet fluctuating water conditions,
which reduces down-time and labor costs.

"We are very pleased that the FDA has finalized the 2009 PMO, which sets meaningful criteria for UV water pasteurization and disinfection in U.S. dairy processing," said Yoni Glickman, chief executive officer of Atlantium Technologies. "The 2009 PMO opens the way for U.S. dairy processors to replace heat pasteurization of water with energy-efficient, chemical-free UV technology. Atlantium's Hydro-Optic system is the industry's only off-the-shelf UV product that meets all the PMO requirements."

Every two years, the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) reviews the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PM0), which includes the procedures and regulations governing the safe supply of Grade A milk and milk products to U.S. consumers. The NCIMS voted in April 2009 on revisions to the PMO, which now allow the use of UV to disinfect and pasteurize water in dairy processing, based on rigorous measurement criteria. The FDA finalized the 2009 PMO, releasing the new provisions to the public on October 14, 2009, paving the way for the use of UV for water disinfection and pasteurization in the U.S. dairy

"The effective date of the new provisions in the 2009 PMO is no later than one year after the electronic publication of the 2009 PMO or the notification to the States of the changes by memo (IMS-a) from FDA, depending on each individual state," explained Raymond Lynn Young, of Milk Regulatory Consultants, LLC , one of three FDA Third-Party Certifiers. "However, this kind of provision, which can save dairies money and energy, is often allowed to be used by State Program Managers soon after publication."

"Atlantium's Hydro Optic Disinfection System has made a big impact on efficiency and overall quality at our Uniontown plant," said Tim Griglack, director of all operations, United Dairy, Inc. The United Uniontown, Penn. facility is one of the first plants to adopt the system for pasteurized equivalent water.

"We've been using the Atlantium system to provide pasteurized equivalent water for nearly 10 months and in that short time have realized savings in terms of filling line operator ease and efficiencies. The best part is that it makes our lives simpler, and the water is so much better after the reactor," Griglack added.

"Because our plant processes such a wide variety of products, we use a tremendous amount of water to flush equipment between products. With Atlantium's Hydro Optic Disinfection UV system, we no longer have to store water and then shut down if the storage tank is empty," said Mark Duray, chief operating officer at Galliker's Dairy in Johnstown, Penn., another of the sites using the system for complying with PMO regulations. "With the Atlantium system, pasteurized-equivalent water is always ready on demand. As
a result, we are able to add more products to the line on any given day, exponentially boosting our efficiency. And we are saving energy and money, too."



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