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UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.

UV Articles 2008

UV News December 12, 2008: Sharper Image Making A Comeback At CES ChannelWeb, by Andrew R Hickey

Sharper Image, the struggling consumer electronics retailer that met its demise after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in February (2008), is planning a comeback at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas next month.
In an e-mail sent to CES attendees on Friday, Sharper Image said it will launch more than 20 new products that will be available in a "wide range of retail stores in 2009."

"Please join us for the much-anticipated launch of the 'New Era of Sharper Image,'" the e-mail stated.

"Our all new electronics line brings back to the marketplace the best things that the Sharper Image brand represents - innovation, premium performance and unique designs," the e-mail continued. "We'll be relaunching with a range of wireless audio, bedside audio, portable audio and speaker systems products. "

Earlier this year, San Francisco-based Sharper Image filed for bankruptcy after experiencing declining sales since 2004. The company recorded net losses in fiscal 2005 to 2007, which continued into 2008. Dwindling consumer spending and negative publicity surrounding its Ionic Breeze air purifiers were integral to the bankruptcy filing.

At its peak, Sharper Image had 186 stores nationwide, while also selling through a monthly catalog and a Web site. As of June 1, 2008 96 Sharper Image stores had completed liquidation and were closed. The remaining stores and assets were bought out by Hilco Merchant Resources and Gordon Brothers Group. Since then, all remaining stores have been shuttered.

On Friday, hinting at its pending attempt at a comeback, Sharper Image's Web site simply read: "Sorry to keep you in the dark. But, there's something big coming. Soon. Stay tuned."

UV News December 8, 2008: Disinfecting Marine Vessel Ballast Water With UV

To assist operators of cruise ships, tankers, semi-submersibles, jack-up rigs and other large ocean-going vessels to meet the International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO’s) impending ballast water discharge requirements, UV disinfection specialist Hanovia has partnered with three of the world’s leading systems integrators to provide validated, on-board water treatment systems that are easy to install and use.

All ocean-going vessels take on water to provide ballast and stability. It is usually taken on in coastal port areas and transported to the next port of call – sometimes on the other side of the world – where it may be discharged. Much of this water contains marine microorganisms such as zooplankton, algae, bacteria and the eggs, cysts and larvae of various species. While many die in transit, some survive and invade the local marine environment, out-competing native species and causing serious damage to native ecosystems. Environmental damage caused by ballast water is now regarded as one of the greatest threats to the world’s oceans.

Two methods have been proposed to combat this problem: onboard ballast water treatment and ballast water exchange. As the name suggests, ballast water treatment involves treatment of ballast water prior to discharge, while ballast water exchange involves ballasting and de-ballasting in the open ocean before coming into ports and coastal waters. This open ocean exchange is not an ideal solution as it is potentially unsafe and can destabilise the vessel. Also, because existing ballast water exchange systems do not completely drain the tanks, sediment and a residual amount of water can remain, leaving behind non-indigenous species which could be discharged in port later.

As well as being unsafe, open ocean ballast water exchange is difficult to regulate and monitor, so many operators simply do not do it. Because of this the IMO is setting much tougher standards to control ballast water practices and has published two Conventions to tackle the problem. The first is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), dealing with waste and sewage discharge from ships (ratified in 2003), and the second is the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention, to control the spread of alien species (due for ratification in 2009). Under the BWM Convention, vessels will have to treat all ballast water so that discharges contain less than 10 viable organisms per cubic metre equal to or greater in size than 50 m in size.

To help operators confront these requirements Hanovia, in tandem with the leading systems integrators, has devised a UV disinfection system that, in conjunction with a filter, kills or removes virtually all microorganisms present in ballast water. The combined system comprises a high intensity, medium pressure UV disinfection unit and an automatic back-flush filter. After passing through the filter to remove larger organisms, the ballast water flows into the UV chamber to destroy smaller organisms. During de-ballasting, the water bypasses the filter but again flows through the UV chamber where further irradiation kills any remaining microorganisms.

The entire system has a very small footprint and can be mounted at any angle, making it easy to install even in the confined spaces of a vessel’s equipment room. Once installed, the system requires little effort to operate by the crew. It can be controlled by a master PLC unit which can be integrated into the vessel’s machinery automation network. The UV unit is equipped with automatic wipers to keep the UV lamps clean, and the only maintenance required by the crew is the replacement of the UV lamps once a year and occasional preventative maintenance procedures.

UV News November 25, 2008: Crystal IS, Inc. Wins $800,000 Department of Defense Grant to Develop UV-LEDs

Crystal IS, Inc., the world's leading manufacturer of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) based on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate technology, today announced it will receive an $800,000 appropriation from the U.S. Department of Defense to advance development of large AlN crystals for effective deep ultraviolet sources.

"Our unique technology allows us to manufacture UV LEDs with unsurpassed performance at truly commercially viable costs," said Crystal IS CEO Steven Berger. "This grant serves as yet another validation of using AlN-based UV-LEDs to enable cleaner water and air for consumer, industrial and government customers."

As part of the program, Crystal IS will partner with the Army Research Laboratory in Adelphi, MD as well as the Electro-Optics Center (EOC) at Penn State University. The program will leverage the recent development of large single-crystal AlN substrates into robust semiconductor sources of deep ultraviolet light as well as other high power, high temperature applications of great importance to the military.

AlN has been demonstrated to be superior for deep UV light-emitting applications. The primary applications of UV-LEDs are as long-lasting, energy efficient, water and air disinfection devices. Crystal IS Inc is developing its deep UV-LEDs at 265nm, the peak germicidal wavelength.

UV News November 3, 2008: LUKOIL Upgrades Environmental Complex At Perm Refinery

Vagit Alekperov, President of OAO LUKOIL, and Grigory Rapota, Plenipotentiary of the RF President in the Volga Federal District, participated in the festive ceremony held in Perm on October 31 to honor the 50th anniversary of OOO “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez”.

As part of the ceremony held at the refinery, newly constructed and renovated facilities of the environmental complex, which incorporates facilities for mechanical, chemical and biochemical treatment, mechanical and sorption filters, ultraviolet disinfection units and a surplus sludge dehydration unit, were presented.

According to LUKOIL , the complex is designed for deep purificaiton of the industrial sewage generated by “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez” and dozens of other plants and enterprises which form the Osentsovsk industrial hub located in Perm. The complex capacity is 68 thousand cu.m. of purified industrial sewage per day.

Cutting-edge technologies and equipment allow to remove hydrocarbons, nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing pollutants, thus making the quality of the purified industrial sewage compliant with fishery requirements. Application of filters with coal sorbents prevents discharge of over 40 tons of petroleum products per annum into surface water bodies. Application of the ultraviolet disinfection method instead of classic chemical treating methods to purify the sewage from pathogenic microorganisms is a characteristic feature of the complex. Application of new technologies for industrial sewage purification also allows to cut river water consumption of the enterprise by 10 %.

Since 2006, over RUR 500 million has been invested into construction of new facilities and reconstruction of the existing ones at OOO “LUKOIL-Permnefteorgsintez” environmental complex.

UV News October 22, 2008: Municipality adding UV disinfection facility /by Claire Piech

Construction on an ultra violet (UV) disinfection facility is expected to begin this fall, as part of the municipality’s $12 million upgrades to Whistler’s 21 Mile Creek water system.

Council is expected to award the construction contract within the next month, and the Resort Municipality of Whistler has budgeted $1.7 million for the UV system, which has been on the books since 2006, according to capital projects manager John Nelson.

“We still chlorinate both our surface source and our ground water source, but the UV is just an added level of treatment that is necessary on surface sources,” Nelson explained.

The 900 square foot UV facility will be built next to the Whistler cemetery and will be accessed via the cemetery’s road off Alta Lake Road.

Residents can expect some disruption while construction of the facility and road repaving are underway, but the cemetery will be open for internment services and visitors, said an RMOW press release.

The municipality will also make sure burial area boundaries and the scattering garden are both marked and protected throughout the construction period. And contractors will stop building during any burial services.

Currently, the 21 Mile Creek water is disinfected by chlorination and piped to the village under Alta Lake.

The UV disinfection facility is part of four upgrades to Whistler’s 21 Mile Creek water system, which provides about 75 per cent of the town’s water supply. The upgrades are intended to improve the safety and capacity of the municipality’s water system, said RMOW staff.

The municipality is tapping into a new groundwater source at Rainbow Park that will connect to the village’s water grid through a pipeline along Lorimer Road. Both the pipeline installation and the pump station construction are underway. Each is expected to cost $5.2 million, said Nelson.

An upgrade to the 21 Mile Aquifer Wells is also scheduled to take place between 2010 and 2012.

Both the Alpine Meadows and Emerald Estates neighbourhoods have their own water systems, and the Benchlands is serviced by the Blackcomb system, which is connected to the main system.

The RMOW is also looking to develop a new groundwater source at Function Junction to supply the athletes’ village.

Whistler’s water is continually checked by the municipality, which spends $1.19 million per year on water operations. The sampling and testing program involves 33 different sample points where the water is tested for bacteriological contamination like E. coli and coliform.

In 2007, E. coli and coliform tests showed there were no bacteria in the water.

UV News October 1, 2008: Larne sewage works leads the way with UV technology

REGIONAL Development Minister Conor Murphy officially opened Larne's new 14m wastewater treatment works last Wednesday.

The plant is the first to use ultra violet light technology - new eco-friendly technology which removes bacteria from the treatment process without the use of chemical disinfectants, leading to improvements in water quality in the area.

The new NI Water site caters for a population of 33,000, and will provide a state of the art facility ensuring the level of treatment meets European standards.

Mr Murphy said: "This investment will ensure that this facility supports the growth and ongoing development within the area, while protecting the local environment. Protection of the lough's eco-system is particularly important in this designated Area of Special Scientific Interest. The use of this technology will ensure that NI Water is doing all it can to safeguard the wetland environment, the shellfish and the bird wildlife.

"Investment of approximately 1million per day is taking place in upgrading the water and sewerage system infrastructure. This facility is just one example of the scale of investment required to provide cleaner beaches and rivers, meet European standards, respond to increasing demand and provide the region with a modern service."

Chris Mellor, Chairman and Chief Executive of NI Water added: "NI Water is committed to investing in projects that will deliver the best innovative solutions and benefit the local economy, community and environment. Extensive research was conducted into sourcing environmentally friendly technology with a proven track record that could meet the standards set by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency for this area.

"Using UV technology is better for the environment as there are less chemicals used in the treatment processes and it also allows an increase in the capacity of water which can be treated, reducing the likelihood of flooding in the area.

"I would like to pay tribute to the expertise of the team involved in this scheme and congratulate our project managers and contractors on achieving our compliance standard on schedule."

UV News September 24, 2008: Bottled water to be given to people affected by aqueduct leak

WAWARSING - The New York City Department of Environmental Protection will cover the cost of bottled water for residents of the U.S. Route 209/Smith Road area who have been affected by leaks in the city's Delaware Aqueduct, town Supervisor Edward Jennings announced on Wednesday.

Jennings said the water will be provided by the Leisure Time Bottled Water Co. in Monticello and will go to 34 families. The Ulster County Health Department has taken water samples from the Route 209/Smith Road area and discovered high levels of E. coli, especially in dug wells. Jennings said he, in turn, negotiated an agreement with New York City DEP Regional Manager Ira Stern for the city to reimburse the town for the cost of the bottled water until ultraviolet treatment systems can be installed in each affected home. The ultraviolet systems, which eliminate bacteria in water, also will be paid for by New York City.

UV News September 19, 2008: Germicidal UVC Lights Improve Clinical Pregnancy Rates For IVF Lab, New Study Finds

A seven and a half-year study conducted in the In Vitro Fertilization Cleanroom Laboratory of the Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network found that the use of ultraviolet C or "UVC" lights installed in the HVAC system had a clinically significant impact on clinical pregnancy rates (CPR). In presenting the findings at the annual meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Kathryn C. Worrilow, Ph.D. reported that the + beta and CPR increased by an average of 17.8% and 18.2%, respectively, following 10 of the 13 change-outs of the Steril-Aire UVC EmittersT over the test period.

Clinical success in an IVF lab is critically dependent upon the quality of the ambient air, which in turn, is directly dependent upon the HVAC system. The study led by Dr. Worrilow tracked three key components in the HVAC system - particulate filters, gas phase filters and UVC lights - and the timing of their replacement - to determine whether these individual components affected markers of preimplantation embryogenesis and clinical pregnancy rates.

According to the findings, "There were no statistically significant differences associated with the replacement of the particulate or gas phase filters in Testing Quarters 1-48. In contrast, immediately following 10 of the 13 UVC Emitter change-outs, the + beta hCG and clinical pregnancy rates increased 17.8% and 18.2%, respectively."

The study goes on to say: "UVC energy will destroy 90 - 99% of airborne microbial contaminants. By targeting the DNA and RNA of microorganisms, UVC degrades and abates the proliferation of airborne and surface embryotoxic organics. Of equal significance to the developing embryo is the suggested impact of UVC irradiation on the degradation of VOCs. Our work has demonstrated that VOC levels as low as 2.2 ppb can be embryotoxic to the embryo cultured in vitro."

The authors conclude: "Although the use of UVC light represents a departure from the standard HVAC design used in many IVF laboratories, the current study suggests that the use of UVC germicidal technology in the HVAC system serving the IVF laboratory may play a critical role in providing optimal ambient air towards improved clinical outcomes. The current study demonstrated that a clinically significant relationship existed between the replacement of the UVC Emitters and the associated clinical pregnancy rates."

Robert Scheir, Ph.D., president of Steril-Aire, Inc., states: "This new data provides scientific evidence of the germicidal benefits of UVC technology. The potential benefits are far-reaching: not only for the potential to improve CPR in IVF clinics, but also for enhancing infection control in hospitals and healthcare environments, and for maintaining better ambient air in medical and pharmaceutical manufacturing clean rooms."

Scheir adds: "The study also confirms the importance of adequate UVC output and changeout frequency in achieving desired results. The study used high-output Steril-Aire UVC lamps with a changeout schedule of 6-9 months. In the 3 of 13 UVC replacement test quarters that did not result in improved clinical pregnancy rates, outside factors may have played a role in the outcomes. As long as the lamps were functioning properly and were changed on schedule, results were consistently positive. The message to anyone using UVC is that it is critical to select a device with adequate output and to replace the device consistently at required intervals to maintain that output. Otherwise, germicidal effectiveness will be diminished."

UV News September 1, 2008: UV Light Solutions for Emerging Ballast Water Treatment Systems, by Jon McClean

High-power, compact UV systems are now being used to prevent the transit across the globe of a wide variety of organisms in ships’ ballast water. Ballast water is taken on board in ports of call to maintain stability when the vessel is not laden and discharged as the vessel becomes laden with cargo.

This small system discharge is often released thousands of miles from the port of embarkation and relocates microscopic plants, mussels, crabs and recently, the fish pathogen viral hemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)1 far from their native range.

UV systems are being incorporated in packages that use separation technology to prepare the ballast water to be disinfected using UV light prior to discharge. The UV systems are compact, use high power polychromatic lamps, have automatic wiping mechanisms and are generally configured with lamps at right angles to the flow. This orientation saves space and eliminates bends, which are detrimental to flow profiles before and after the UV chambers.

Medium-pressure lamps are most often used in this application, as their compact size permits a small treatment footprint, allowing skid mounting and safe lamp removal.

The problem
More than 46,0002 commercial vessels—tankers, cruise liners, bulk carriers, RO/RO ferries, container ships and barges— travel across the oceans carrying cargo and passengers for transport, leisure and commerce. Between three to four billion metric tons of ballast water move across the oceans annually.

Approximately 75 percent of these vessels are involved in intercontinental trade. The asymmetric nature of this trade means that occasionally container vessels arrive laden into US ports from China and embark empty, ballasted with water taken on board in the US.

Likewise, coal and iron ore carriers arrive empty into Australian or South American ports fully ballasted with water. And they discharge this ballast water prior to taking cargo on board. Ballast water is also often used as a trim aid in port when loading or unloading cargo.

It is estimated that 7,000 species are transported in ships ballast water. The majority of these species do not survive the ballasting/de-ballasting cycle, as the environment within the ballast tanks is hostile and not conducive to permit colonies of organisms to survive. Those that do survive, however, are usually hardy. And they frequently out-compete indigenous species, surviving to establish a reproducing population.

Invasive threat
Over 100 non-native species of marine organisms are known to have been introduced globally by ballast water. While some appear benign, others are a threat to biodiversity, fisheries and aquaculture.

The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) views the threat of invasion by these species as “the greatest immediate threat to most coastal state ecosystems.” Some introduced species severely deplete native populations or deprive them of food. Others form colonies that can damage
other existing fauna.

Introduced toxic dinoflagellates cause red tides and algal blooms that can affect or even kill shellfish, fish and sea birds. When eaten by humans, these contaminated shellfish can cause paralysis or even fatality. In southern Australia and along the west coast of the US, the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida is rapidly
invading new areas, displacing the native seabed communities. Shipments of the European oyster Ostrea edulis were brought from Washington to France to supplement a low native stock. The virus Bonamia ostrea accompanied these shipments and ended up destroying the remaining native stock of the European oyster in France.

In the Black Sea, filter-feeding North American jellyfish (Mnemiopsis leidyi) have on occasion reached densities of two lbs of biomass per nine cubic ft. This culprit has depleted native zooplankton stocks to such an extent that it contributed to the collapse of entire Black Sea commercial fisheries in the 1990’s.
Salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) once used as packing material for Atlantic oysters (Crassostrea virginica), has been introduced into Oregon. The cordgrass continues to spread along the Oregon coast, taking over mudflats and disrupting bird migrations. The fish pathogen VHS was reported in the Great Lakes
area in 20036. The rapid transfer of the virus through all of the waterways frequented by vessels dumping ballast is no coincidence.

The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) was banned for importation and aquaculture in the US in the late 1980s; however, the crab was discovered in San Francisco Bay in 1994. Introduction by ballast water is the probable source. The crab burrows into riverbanks, dykes and levees causing erosion and siltation.

The solution
The United Nations’ International Maritime Organization (IMO) has a number of initiatives underway at this time to address the issue of non-indigenous species transit and invasion and to address pollution of the ocean and fresh water areas. The Ballast Water Management (BWM) convention was published in 2004 and has a target implementation date of 2009. MARPOL 73/78 (International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships) covers the discharge of sewage at sea and came into force in 2003.

Two methods are proposed to mitigate the threat of species transfer: either ballast water treatment (BWT) or ballast water exchange (BWE). BWE is available only to those non-coastal vessels that can exchange ballast water mid-ocean. This is a time-consuming and potentially hazardous exercise, as it involves the vessel stopping or slowing considerably and exposes hull structures to stress. A number of ship designers are now developing ‘no stop’ BWE systems or vessel designs that eliminate the need for ballast water altogether. For BWE regimes, a 95 percent volumetric exchange of ballast water is required. This is
measured as three times the volume of the ballast tank exchange. From the date of implementation (2009),
ships will be required to treat ballast water discharge to achieve less than 100 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL of intestinal enterococci and less than 250CFU/100mL of Escherichia coli. Vibrio cholerae (O1,O139) should be less than one CFU/100mL or less than one CFU/per one gram (wet weight) of
zooplankton samples. MARPOL 73/78 has been in force since 2003 and by 2006, 113 countries or
75 percent of active tonnage had signed the convention. In 2016, all vessels will be required to treat their ballast water to comply with these microbial levels.

In April 2008, the US House of Representatives approved regulations requiring all saltwater ships entering US ports to treat their ballast water by 2016. The bill (HR 2830) sets a more demanding disinfection standard than the IMO protocol and requires that the number of organisms greater than 50 microns in
minimum dimension be reduced to fewer than 10 living organisms per cubic meter of water in the discharged ballast water. Chemical or biocide-based methods of disinfecting ballast water are unattractive from a number of perspectives. The proximity of bulk chemicals poses handling and storage risk to the ships
crew and often a de-chlorination process is required to ensure that no active substance or residual is discharged. A number of innovative suppliers are enhancing the production of hydroxyl radicals with the exposure of an accelerant such as titanium dioxide to UV light. A dedicated joint group of experts on the
scientific aspects of marine environmental protection (GESAMP)7 now has a ballast water technical work group (Work Group 34) in place.

The focus of Work Group 34 is to determine what risk is posed by the discharge of a variety of active substances. Hydroxyl species are a novel addition to their usual list of chemical residuals to investigate. These reactive species are very short lived and the ballast water has a high hydroxyl demand.

How does UV work?
The ballast water is prepared for UV disinfection using a variety of filters or cyclonic separators. The systems are usually skid mounted and automated; the UV systems have automatic wiping and the filters automatic backwashing. UV works by permanently damaging the DNA of all living organisms. The damaged (or dimerized) DNA is no longer able to support normal cell function and the organism is rendered non viable.
The sizing of the UV system is determined by: (a) flow rate; (b) transmittance of the fluid to ultraviolet light and (c) the dose requirement. The method is non- intrusive and does not alter the chemistry, color or physical property of the ballast water.

Different organisms have demonstrated varied resistance to UV. A growing number of organisms are being found to be highly resistant to chlorine and many of these emerging pathogens are effectively disinfected using UV. UV dose is expressed in mJ cm-2. Most of the leading UV manufacturers use CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to predict the performance of the UV systems. Working in partnership with BWT system providers, they use a variety of validation techniques to determine the actual UV system performance in the BWT process. Preparation of ballast water is very important, as color,
suspended solids and particulates would render the UV ineffective.

CFD modeling expertise and accuracy has advanced significantly in the last five years. And leading UV system manufacturers such as Sollux, Trojan and ATG use proprietary software models to integrate flow and radiation profiles.

Flow profile
The flow profile is produced from the chamber geometry, flow rate and particular turbulence model selected.
The radiation profile is developed from inputs such as water quality, lamp type (power, germicidal efficiency, spectral output, arc length) and the transmittance and dimension of the quartz sleeve.

Proprietary CFD software simulates both flow and radiation profiles. Once a 3-D model of the chamber is built, it is populated with a grid or mesh that comprises thousands of small cubes. Points of interest (such as at a bend) or the quartz sleeve surface or around the wiper mechanism use a higher resolution mesh, while other areas within the reactor use a coarse mesh.

Once the mesh is produced, hundreds of thousands of virtual particles are ‘fired’ through the chamber.
Each particle has several variables of interest associated with it and the particles are ‘harvested’ after the reactor. Discrete phase modeling produces delivered dose, head loss and other chamber specific parameters.

System analysis
For system approval, on-shore and ship-based process validation is conducted to ensure that the system is capable of performing as required. Fouling of quartz sleeves can occur and prevent the UV light from penetrating into the water. Iron is often present in ballast/bilge water, as the marine environment is aggressive and materials coming into contact with it need to be carefully selected. In addition to iron, ballast water can often contain oils and lubricants and has a high oxygen demand. Effective wipers are critical to the UV system performance. BWT systems are now also being evaluated as part of the US Coast Guard STEP8 program in the US and are undergoing IMO-type approval through the UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) in cooperation with Lloyd’s Register.

Much damage has been done by the inadvertent transit through ballast discharge of a great many nuisance
species. However, it does seem that this area is finally getting the attention it deserves.

UV systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as part of small system ballast water treatment packages. Performance of the UV system depends critically on the ability of the upstream filters and separators to adequately treat the ballast water. Ratification and implementation of the IMO ballast water management
convention will soon make it a criminal act to discharge untreated ballast water. Neither the very international nature of the shipping business, nor the intense competitive pressures caused by high
and rising fuel costs will be acceptable reasons for non-compliance. Nor will the absence of a global regulation for such small systems be acceptable.

UV News September 1, 2008: Village officials are studying water plant plan
Poughkeepsie Journal, By Michael Woyton

WAPPINGERS FALLS, N.Y. - Village officials are considering a proposal to repair and replace the water plant. The $3.75 million project would include the drilling of an additional well, installation of an ultraviolet light disinfection system and expanding existing water plant buildings.

"The goal is to be 100 percent dependent on our own source (for water) and completely separated from the Poughkeepsie source," town engineer Jay Paggi said.

High iron and bacteria levels in the Wappinger Lake aquifer forced the state Department of Health to shut down village wells in October 2006. The village has been buying water from the City/Town of Poughkeepsie Joint Water Board since that time under a five-year contract.

Mayor Matt Alexander said the cost of buying water from the joint board is $350 per year per household. With 1,600 households, the cost is $560,000 or $2.8 million over the course of the five-year contract.

Under the proposed time-table, the village would be capable of producing and distributing its own water by 2011, which is when the contract with the joint board expires.

Light instead of chlorine
Paggi said ultraviolet light was chosen as a primary disinfectant over traditional chlorine. That is because for chlorine to be effective, the water must be stored while the chemical disinfects it. A tank large enough for that procedure would be costly to build and maintain, Paggi said.

He said the plant's electrical and control systems will be modernized, allowing the operator to easily monitor water flow at distant locations.

Under the proposal, security for the system will be installed, along with a backup power generator.

Only two of the now-existing four wells will continue to operate. A third well will be drilled as a backup to ensure peak daily demand of 700 gallons per minute can be met.

Village resident Bob Camenga was concerned if the well field would be able to generate water for a long period of time.

"In the year of a drought, will we have enough?" he asked.

Paggi said the computer model used to calculate adequate flow assumed a worst-case scenario of no rainfall for 700 days.

Alexander said the next steps were for the water commission to complete an environmental impact study for the project.

Then the village trustees would pass a resolution authorizing the borrowing of the money.

UV News August 19, 2008: Naples water to get UV treatment, By Emily McFaul

Naples, N.Y. - Besides filtering public water, Naples’ new system will use ultraviolet light as an extra step to prevent contamination.

The ultraviolet treatment — called UV for short — wasn’t part of the state mandate that Naples filter the water from its Eelpot and Blodget reservoirs, but the Village Board opted to add it now in the hope of saving money down the road.

JP Schepp of Chatfield Engineers told the Village Board at a recent project planning meeting that the cryptosporidium and giardia microorganisms that can get into surface waters — and that the state is most concerned about — are large enough to be caught in the bag-and-cartridge filters. Both cause intestinal illness. The UV lights will treat the water that’s already run through the filter.

“It’s kind of suspenders and a belt,” Schepp said. “But that’s not a bad thing.”

While a UV light inactivates bacteria and can disable harmful microorganisms small enough to travel through a filter, it doesn’t replace the need for filtration. The filters physically remove particulate matter before drinking water goes through the UV treatment, explained Department of Health engineer Sheryl Robbins, so that sediment or other contaminants don’t create cloudiness that prevent the UV rays from reaching harmful microorganisms.

And, chlorinating the water after it goes through the filters and UV treatment helps maintain the cleanliness of the water if bacteria should be re-introduced through leaks in the water lines.
In electing to add the UV treatment, the village was anticipating a round of tests that municipalities are required to start running on public water supplies in October. Tests are scheduled on a regular basis over a period of one to two years and, depending on the type of microorganisms to be checked for, could have cost the village anywhere between $2,400 to $24,000. Test failures would have meant Naples would have been required to add the UV treatments to its systems.

Robbins said the village will now be excused from the additional testing that begins this fall, since the Environmental Protection Agency considers the multi-barrier approach that Naples plans to provide the maximum treatment that can be given to water.

Installing the UV treatment as part of the filtration project has been estimated to cost around $64,000. The board agreed that buying the equipment now, before costs rise and additional money is spent on testing, would be a good investment.

There may be other long-term operating savings. Robbins and Tom Schwartz, the village’s superintendent of public works, told the board that the UV equipment means the amount of chlorination in the treated water can be reduced.

The UV equipment isn’t strictly a line item in the filtration budget, since the board agreed on the need for the treatment only at the tail end of planning. But Schepp told the board that with a contingency fund of $120,000 and some leeway in how much is spent on other parts of the project, the inclusion of the UV equipment shouldn’t present a problem.

To stay on the compliance schedule agreed on with the state, designs for the project are scheduled to be turned over to review agencies by Nov. 1. Construction is slated to begin by July 1, 2009 and be completed in a year.

UV News August 01, 2008: Heraeus will be showing its latest innovations of UV lamps for water treatment at the forthcoming water events

The lamp specialist Heraeus Noblelight will show UV Lamps at IWA Vienna 2008 and AQUATECH 2008 in Amsterdam

The lamp specialist Heraeus Noblelight will show UV Lamps at IWA Vienna 2008 and AQUATECH 2008 in Amsterdam
Heraeus Noblelight, the manufacturer of special light sources, will be represented at the forthcoming events of the water industry – at IWA Vienna 2008 and AQUATECH 2008 in Amsterdam.
The IWA World Water - Congress and Exhibition – takes place in Vienna, September 8-11, 2008. AQUATECH, the world’s leading trade exhibition on process, drinking and waste water technology, will be in Amsterdam, September 30 to October 3, 2008.

Heraeus Noblelight will be showing UV lamps which are used for drinking water disinfection in waterworks, for wastewater treatment in sewage treatment plants and for the treatment of industrial process water. These include low pressure UVC lamps, compact, high power medium pressure UV lamps and Longlife amalgam lamps. An innovative and powerful UV Amalgam Lamp will be launched at AQUATECH in Amsterdam.

In addition to the conventional processes for cleaning water – such as the use of chemicals like chlorine and ozone or filtration systems – the importance of ultraviolet light as a reliable, environmentally friendly and economically viable alternative is ever increasing.

Since its development of UV medium pressure technology in 1904, Heraeus Noblelight can look back to 100 years of experience in the development, production and application of UV lamps. Through innovations such as Longlife technology, Heraeus continues to set milestones in the field of UV lamps. Heraeus Noblelight is an original equipment supplier and the partner of choice for many systems builders involved in the disinfection of water, air and surfaces, as well as for manufacturers of systems for photo-chemistry and photo-oxidization.

UV News July 30, 2008: Battling the Parasite in Your Local Pool
By ANNA PRIOR, The Wall Street Journal

Rising infections from a chlorine-resistant parasite called Cryptosporidium are forcing pools and water parks across the country to take new measures - from ultraviolet-light water treatments to tighter swimming restrictions - to keep their water clean.

The parasite - commonly called crypto - is found in human and animal feces and is easily transmitted through water. When ingested, crypto can cause an illness of up to two weeks, with symptoms that include long bouts of diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches and low-grade fevers.

Earlier this summer, city officials in Phoenix closed and disinfected the city's 29 pools for a week after more than 100 people complained of illness and a pool was found to have the parasite. A series of outbreaks last summer in Utah sickened nearly 2,000 people. And an outbreak at a spray park in Seneca Lake State Park in New York in 2005 caused more than 4,000 people to seek medical help.

Crypto outbreaks have been increasing over the past two decades, according to Michael Beach, associate director for healthy water at the National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases. The past few years have seen a surge, with outbreaks at pools, spray parks - which feature fountains and other spraying devices - and water parks jumping to around 25 in 2007 from five in 2003. Overall, outbreaks of waterborne gastrointestinal disease rose to 30 in 2007 from seven in 2003.

In 1993, crypto-infected drinking water in Milwaukee sickened more than 400,000 people and is thought to have killed more than 100. Still, many people aren't aware that the illness can be contracted at swimming pools, as well as ponds and other bodies of water. (Ocean-related outbreaks are very rare.) The crypto parasite has a thick outer shell, so it can survive for more than 10 days in a pool at standard chlorination levels.

Last summer, when Jill Everett's 8-year-old son, Nathan, woke up one night with wrenching stomach cramps and diarrhea, she never thought that his symptoms were related to the swimming lessons he'd been taking at the local pool. "I thought it was the stomach flu," says Ms. Everett, a 43-year-old computer programmer in Bountiful, Utah.

But three days later, Nathan was still sick, so Ms. Everett took him to the doctor, where she learned he had crypto. "I had never even heard of it," she says.

Now, many water parks are installing ultraviolet systems, which kill parasites including crypto when water passes through the systems' UV light. Seven Peaks Water Park, in Provo, Utah, invested about $250,000 in UV systems, said the park's maintenance engineer, Ken Kroeber. Park officials were concerned after some people who became ill in last year's outbreak said they had swum there, though the water wasn't ever tested for the parasite, he said.

In Utah, state public-health officials want anyone who has had diarrhea to stay away from pools - including water parks and hotel and apartment pools - for two weeks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warn people who have had the illness to stay out of pools for at least two weeks after they get better.

The CDC is working with industry representatives and public-health officials to put together the Model Aquatic Health Code - a set of CDC-endorsed water-safety guidelines that state and local agencies will enforce. To address current concerns about crypto, a section on dealing with bodily fluids is expected to be posted on the CDC's Web site for public comment within several weeks.

Since crypto isn't affected by chlorine (except at levels unsafe for humans), combating the parasite will require not only pool officials but also swimmers to shift their thinking. "It's a change in understanding on the part of the people that swim," says Jonathan Yoder, who coordinates the CDC's water-borne-disease outbreak surveillance system. "It's important for them to understand they can transmit illness when they swim when they're ill. The water is not sterile."

Current safety rules may not always protect swimmers. In Utah, new state rules require kids who still use diapers to wear swim diapers and waterproof pants in pools. But swim diapers won't necessarily prevent the spread of crypto. "No product either durable or disposable is designed to contain bowel movements while under water for a long time," says Lance Latham, a spokesman for Kimberly-Clark, which makes Huggies Little Swimmers diapers. "Little Swimmers are not intended to contain diarrhea."

Still, swimmers can take steps to stay safe. While chlorine doesn't affect crypto at normal levels, it does kill other illness-causing agents, such as E. coli, giardia and hepatitis A. Underchlorination of pools can allow such diseases to spread. To test unfamiliar waters, people can purchase chlorination-testing strips at most hardware stores.

After a quick dip in the water, the strips take about 15 to 30 seconds to work. Colors on the strips indicate whether levels of "free chlorine, ph and total alkalinity" are safe in the pool. If the levels are not where they should be, swimmers can tell a pool manager or call the local health department, says the CDC's Dr. Beach.

Another way to battle the threat of a crypto outbreak is for more pools to require swimmers to shower before entering the pool. A public pool is "a public bath tub," Dr. Beach says. "We need to keep things sanitary."

UV News July 17, 2008: UV for Wisconsin village groundwater
Water Tech Online

PRAIRIE DU SAC, WI — Prairie Du Sac, which uses groundwater to supply its drinking water, now relies solely on ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection, according to a July 17 article in The Sauk Prairie Eagle.

According to the article, this system is one of the first of its kind nationwide to disinfect with UV. Mark Borchardt, a research scientist at the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation based in Marshfield, WI, said in the article, “They might be only the third municipality in the nation to do this for a groundwater system.”

Borchardt chose Prairie du Sac as one of 14 municipalities in Wisconsin for a federally funded study to determine the link between municipal groundwater and gastrointestinal illnesses in children, the article said. None of the municipalities chosen for the study, including Prairie du Sac, disinfected its drinking water, the article said.

Municipalities using groundwater systems that are not affected by surface water, such as Prairie du Sac, are not required by law to disinfect their water supplies. Borchardt said his study could change that.

During Borchardt's two-year study, selected families in the 14 communities maintained weekly health logs and Borchardt collected regular water samples from their homes.

The water remained untreated for one year of the study and for one year the water supply was disinfected by passing through concentrated UV light.

Borchardt will release his full findings for all 14 communities later this year in a peer-reviewed journal.

He informally told the village that his findings showed disinfecting the water had a positive impact on community health, which Wildman said prompted the village to purchase the UV light reactors used in the study.

UV News July 7, 2008: CDC recommends UV or ozone disinfection for pools
Water Tech Online

ATLANTA — Findings of a new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study about the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other parasites in swimming pool filter backwash suggest that there is a need for continued emphasis on improving swimming pool operation and maintenance, such as preventive hyperchlorination or routine flocculation, combined with supplementary inline disinfection systems such as ultraviolet light (UV) or ozone.

The study, “Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in swimming pools, Atlanta, Georgia,” was published in the June 2008 issue of the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases.

UV and ozone are known to inactivate Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp., both gastrointestinal parasites spread through the fecal-oral route, according to the study’s authors, Joan M. Shields, et al.

According to the study’s abstract, “Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis have been found in swimming pool filter backwash during outbreaks. To determine baseline prevalence, we sampled pools not associated with outbreaks and found that of 160 sampled pools, 13 (8.1 percent) were positive for 1 or both parasites; 10 (6.2 percent) for Giardia sp.; 2 (1.2 percent) for Cryptosporidium spp.;, and 1 (0.6 percent) for both.”

While the authors write that the study is “a snapshot of contamination at the end of the swim season,” they conclude that “the finding of swimming pool filter contamination by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. is key,” reinforcing the need for improved pool operation and maintenance. UV and ozone are both listed as supplementary inline disinfection systems that should be considered.

The authors also write that the general public, especially immunocompromised persons, need to understand recreational water–associated illness transmission and adopt healthy swimming habits that are needed to reduce the risk for pathogen transmission.

UV News July 1, 2008: UV light helps to ensure safe bathing during the summer months
Environmental Expert

• Ultraviolet light kills bacteria in wastewater without the need for chemicals and allows safe bathing in the Isar.
• Reliable and environmentally friendly method
• Used in the project “Clean Isar” in a large number of clarification plants in Bavaria/Germany.

In addition to the conventional processes for cleaning water – such as the use of chemicals like chlorine and ozone or filtration systems – the importance of ultraviolet light as a reliable, environmentally friendly and economically viable alternative is ever increasing.

Communal wastewater, after being cleaned in clarification plants, is reintroduced into the water cycle, into rivers, lakes and coastal waters. Special treatment is necessary if, at subsequent points, drinking water is extracted or wastewater is fed back to bathing waters. If the wastewater has a high germ count then the hygienic conditions for bathing become doubtful as there are significant dangers of infection for humans.

Project “Clean Isar” – A Decision for UV
The city of Munich and the State of Bavaria started a project to improve the hygienic water quality of the Isar river, to ensure safe bathing during the summer months. One part of the Isar is diverted into the Isar canal and used for energy generation. As a result, the remaining Isar between the cities of Bad Toelz and Freising carries very little water. By introducing cleaned wastewater from the clarification plants in this area the degree of contamination was high, in spite of sufficient treatment, and the water was heavy with pathogens.
The Europe-wide, unique “Clean Isar” project included the decision to use UV wastewater disinfection as the final cleaning stage in the sewage treatment plants which fed the wastewater back into the river. The aim was to significantly reduce the germ count of the waste waters and so improve the hygienic water quality of the Isar in the bathing season, while meeting the severe EU bathing water regulations. In 2000, the Bavarian State showed evidence from the pilot scheme for wastewater disinfection in Bad Toelz that bathing water quality could be achieved in the Isar. Hygienic considerations are decisive for the bathing water quality. Contamination of the water, for example by pathogens, can cause illnesses in the bathers. Bacteria and viruses play an important role, particularly, fecal germs, streptococci, salmonella and enteric viruses.

Ultraviolet light inactivates bacteria in wastewater without the addition of chemicals. The treatment of water with UV radiation is a very effective physical process for reliably disinfecting water and breaking down pollutants. The energy-rich radiation, at wavelengths of around 254 nanometers is absorbed by the DNA and destroys its structure. As a result, the UV rays, in a matter of seconds, destroy the cells of the pathogens in the water, such as bacteria, micro-organisms, viruses, fungi or parasites. In addition, chlorine-resistant parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidia can be killed by UV light. Pathogens cannot develop any resistance to UV light. An important benefit is that this cleaning process takes place completely without chemicals and hence there are no chemical residuals.

UV light is versatile in its application – it can be used to treat water, air and surfaces. Drinking water treatment in waterworks, wastewater treatment in sewage treatment plants or process water treatment in industry (typically, the recycling and re-use of process water) are the interesting applications of UV in the water industry.

Disinfection with ultraviolet light becomes more and more accepted
The physical method of disinfection with UVC light is a reliable and economical technique, which is often used for the disinfection of water. For example, the city of New York has chosen this technology for drinking water disinfection for new waterworks which are planned for the Catskill/Delaware catchment area about 160 kilometer north of New York city. This will be the largest UV disinfection plant for drinking water in the world. From 2010, the new waterworks will treat up to 2.2 billion gallons (8.3 million cubic meters) of water per day for more than nine million people in New York city and its environs.

In recent years, the acceptance of UV disinfection in commercial applications has continued to grow. UV disinfection has been successfully used for wastewater treatment in the USA for decades and is now becoming increasingly specified in Europe, as in the Isar project.

The town of Freising has also setteled for wastewater disinfection through UV radiation to provide hygienic wastewater and clean water in the Isar. The sewage treatment plant in Freising treats around 5 million m of wastewater (per day) from the town of Freising, its commercial companies (Dairy, breweries) and eight neighboring townships. Within the scope of the “Clean Isar” project, the Freising plant was completely modernized and enlarged. Today the clarification plant is designed for an 110,000 inhabitant value. In addition, the water rights application meets stricter limits and the escapage loss has been drastically reduced. The plant expansion includes a new biological treatment plant, settling tanks, a fish pond, new CHP plants and a UV disinfection plant.

Freising decided upon a plant from the Canadian manufacturer TROJAN technologies. This was installed in September 2005 and began operation in the summer of 2006. An important plus point was the sophisticated wiper technology of the TrojanUV3000Plus system, which continuously removes any dirt or deposits from the quartz safety tubes. This possible coating, which is often ferrous, leads to a reduction in the UV intensity in the water.

The UV plant in Freising is fitted with 196 UV lamps, each of 250 Watt output. The UV lamps are contained in UV-transparent Quartz glass tubes, which are tightly sealed. Two open channels work with two corresponding banks, which are each fitted with six modules. The plant is self-regulated according to the wastewater throughput. Depending on the throughput and the water transmission, one channel is operated with the necessary number of modules. The lamp power can be controlled between 60% and 100% intensity. An SPS controller automatically regulated the operating mode. A UV sensor continually monitors the UV lamp intensity and an on-line measurement of water transmission matches the power to the demand.

The Freising plant is designed for a maximum of 652 liters per second (2350 m/hour). Maximum input is 611 liters per second. This ensures that the capacity of the UV plant is sufficient to handle the maximum expected wastewater input. The plant delivers a UV dose of 306J/m, which ensure certain UV disinfection.

An external, independent laboratory takes monthly samples and tests the water quality. The samples are taken before and after the UV plant and look out for faecal germs and streptococci. The regional authority also monitors the wastewater quality. This takes the form of unannounced, monthly sampling to check bathing water quality.

Willi Frankl, manager of the Freising sewage works says of his experiences, “The plant stands or falls on the UV lamps. The operating life of the lamps is a decisive factor. The later I have to change over lamps, the more economical the UV plant.”

The energy efficiency of the UV disinfection plants in communal clarification plants can be improved by using particularly efficient UV lamps. The challenge for today’s UV lamps is to significantly increase their efficiency and operating life.

Different Lamp Technologies for Water Treatment
The disinfection of water can involve the use of compact medium pressure UV lamps, low pressure UV lamps and high power amalgam lamps.

Medium pressure lamps give a broad band spectrum over the complete range from 200 to 400 nanometers. Their high radiation flux allows very good disinfection from compact units. Similarly, with high throughput, it is possible to design very compact disinfection systems. For example, these lamps are used on board ships where space is very limited to disinfect ballast water. Typical lamp operating life is 1500 to 5000 hours.

Low pressure lamps emit radiation at a wavelength of 254 nanometers. Classical UV low pressure lamps offer exceptional efficiency: up to 40% of the electrical power is converted into UV radiation for disinfection. However, the power density is limited and a large number of lamps is often required. When synthetic quartz glass is used as the lamp material, additional UV radiation at 185 nanometers is emitted and this can be used for oxidation processes. The first lamp change is normally after 8000 hours. After this the lamps exhibit a drop-off in UV intensity of up to 50 percent.

However, there are significantly longer life lamps. For example, the specialist light source manufacturer, Heraeus Noblelight, has developed new high power, amalgam lamps, which operate for up to 16,000 hours with virtually constant UV output and so provide significantly more power than conventional standard low pressure lamps, with their usual operating life of 8000 hours. A unique longlife coating doubles the life of amalgam lamps. This new technology not only improves the useful life of the lamps but also ensure a virtually constant UV output over the length of this working life.

In addition, with the new coating, high power amalgam lamps can eliminate the transmission loss of quartz glass which is associated with conventional lamps, so that a virtually constant disinfection action is achieved over the complete operating life. With conventional UV lamps, mercury diffuses into the quartz, so that such lamps deliver only 50% of the original UV power after 8000 hours. The new technology allows up to 16000 hours of operation at virtually constant UV output and consequently significantly more power overall than conventional lamps.

In comparison with previous lamp technology, UV amalgam lamps offer the best combination of efficiency and operating life. Thanks to the higher UV output and the long operating life, system builders now need fewer lamps in any new disinfection plants they design. As a result there is significant potential for saving in the number of lamps, in system components, in energy demands and in maintenance and service costs. End users, such as waterworks and clarification plants, profit from the long operating life. The time between lamp changes is virtually doubled while the operating time provides the lamps with more UV power than conventional low pressure lamps.

Outlook – New areas of application for UV radiation
The increasing environmental pollution caused by medications in wastewater is becoming more of a problem. In order to destroy the very complex pharmaceuticals such as steroids and antibiotics, it is sensible and effective to use a combination of UV radiation and powerful oxidation substances such as hydrogen peroxide. UV radiation at a wavelength of 185 nanometers makes even higher energies available and allows oxidization processes, which can break down health-threatening chemicals in water.

UV News June 27, 2008: Ray of Light for Agriculture: UV Lamps Eliminate The Use of Pesticides

Ray of Light for Agriculture: UV Lamps Eliminate The Use of Pesticides

The PhytO3 method is environmentally-friendly
and leaves no biological or chemical residues
on the plant surfaces and in the environment.

Click here to view larger picture
New Application for UV Lamps in Agriculture
- Swiss Company Develops PhytO3-machines with UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight
- Eliminates Pesticides
- Patented Method

UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight are used to treat water, air and work surfaces. Often, these specialist light sources find application in the treatment of drinking water or in the disinfection of packaging materials in the foodstuffs industry.

The destruction of micro-organisms with UV light is now also taking place in the agricultural sector. The Swiss company SwissFood Tech Management AG, following its field tests carri9ed out in 2006, is now using UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight in its PhytO3 machine, which uses the combination of ozonised water and UV light for the treatment of agricultural fields in order to replace the use of pesticides and insecticides.

PhytO3 Method With UV Light Replaces Pesticides.
The PhytO3 process replaces the use of pesticides by using the combination of ozonised water and UV light. Extensive field research has validated the effectiveness of this process.

In operation, a structure suspended at the end of a tractor is equipped with Heraeus lamps. Ozone is generated by silent electrical discharge in a separate unit, which is mounted on the forks at the front of the tractor, and is dissolved in water. The PhytO3 method combines two effects: the plants are sprayed with ozonised water and irradiated with UVC light. Biological pests often live on plant surfaces. Small animals, such as beetles, are simply sprayed with water on the ground but are not destroyed. Micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria and moulds on the plants are targeted and destroyed in a controlled manner by UVC radiation at a wavelength of 254nm. The energy rich UVC radiation neutralises micro-organisms, as it damages the genetic make-up. In addition, the UV radiation activates the ozone enriching the water on the plant surface and generates excited oxygen. This destroys the cell walls of the micro-organisms.

By the removal of the pests, the risk of plant damage or damage to the field is significantly reduced. This pesticide technique, employing UV lamps, is environmentally-friendly and there is no need for chemicals. There are no biological or chemical residuals on the plant surfaces, in the soil or in the environment. The ozone will usually decay within a maximum of 15 minutes, i.e, some time after the spraying takes place the ozone concentration falls to zero.

UV-Amalgam Lamps from Heraeus Noblelight
The amalgam lamps used in the PhytO3 method generate UV radiation at a wavelength of 254 Nanometers.

Longlife Amalgam lamps, as the name implies, are high power, low pressure lamps with extremely long operating lives. They can achieve up to ten times the UV power density of classical mercury low pressure lamps and are insensitive to temperature fluctuations. Heraeus Amalgam lamps are fitted with a unique coating, which prevents the transmission loses of quartz glass associated with conventional UV lamps. The result is a virtually constant disinfection sanction throughout the lamp’s life.

UV News June 27, 2008: Ultraviolet light plan to kill bug
Daventry Express

ANGLIAN Water will use ultraviolet light to kill parasites currently contaminating tap water in the Daventry area. The company is installing three units at the Pitsford Water Treatment Works which will shine ultraviolet rays into the water, rendering the cryptosporidium parasite harmless.

However, it could still be a matter of a couple of weeks before the supply is safe to drink and Anglian Water is advising customers to continue boiling tap water until further notice.

A spokesman for Anglian Water said: "We have brought in three ultraviolet units and this is a well known technology for rendering cryptosporidium harmless." "We have to go through a very thorough testing of the water to make sure it is back to up to the excellent quality of tap water.

"We have numerous resources in terms of man hours in terms of installing the UV light equipment and finding out the cause. The investigations into how the parasite got into the water is still on-going.
"We would like to apologise to customers for any inconvenience caused by these problems and we hope they feel reassured that we are doing everything we can to return the tap water to the high standards we had previously."

Anglian Water has also confirmed provisional plans to set up an information service at Daventry District Council's offices, but nothing formal has yet been announced.

UV News June 11, 2008: ITT completes EPA validation for world’s most efficient UV drinking water system

ATLANTA - (BUSINESS WIRE) - ITT Corporation (NYSE: ITT), a leading provider of systems for treating and transporting water and wastewater, announced today that it has completed a new validation for ITT’s WEDECO K Series Ultraviolet (UV) Reactor according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. The WEDECO K Series UV reactor is the most efficient large scale drinking water system using UV disinfection on the world market.

UV disinfection of drinking water is a safe and reliable way to protect public health from waterborne diseases. Since UV light has the ability to sterilize pathogenic microorganisms within seconds, it has been widely implemented in many water treatment facilities throughout the world. The WEDECO K Series UV Reactor offers significant cost savings for large scale drinking water UV projects. The WEDECO UV systems are using low pressure, high-output UV lamps, so the operating costs are typically less than half of the leading medium pressure lamp systems available.

The WEDECO K Series UV reactor underwent all possible design scenarios during the validation, with flow rates up to 40 million gallons per day. In addition to the upcoming drinking water projects, more than 100 installed K Series vessels in North America can now be certified according to the latest USEPA guidelines.

UV News June 09, 2008: UVC ... Included in New ASHRAE Handbook
ASHRAE Press Room

ATLANTA – New chapters related to ultraviolet lamp systems and combustion turbine inlet cooling are featured in ASHRAE’s new 2008 Handbook volume.

HVAC Systems and Equipment discusses systems and the equipment that comprise them, including features and differences. It is designed to help system designers and building operators select and use equipment. It contains 48 chapters.

The chapter on ultraviolet lamp systems addresses the use of such systems to improve indoor air quality. “Use of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation has increased as concerns about the transmission via ductwork of pathogenic organisms, such as tuberculosis and even bioterrorism agents, have escalated among designers,” Walter Grondzik, chair of the subcommittee that coordinated publishing of the 2008 volume, said.

UV News June 04, 2008: School Board Approves UV Sanitation System
Christina Rowland, Southlake Times

The Carroll ISD Board of Trustees is hoping an investment of almost $100,000 will help those suffering with asthma to swim a bit easier.

The school board approved the purchase Monday of a $92,000 UV sanitation system that would work in conjunction with two other sanitation systems already in use to help decrease the amount of chemicals put into the pool.

“It (the UV system) kills germs in the pool by using a high ultraviolet light. It oxidizes chloramines in the water and kills them,” Assistant Superintendent for Administrative Services Dr. Derek Citty said, “as they pass through the light it changes them to a chemical that is not harmful to inhale.”

The system will cut down on the chemicals and chlorine that are currently put in the pool to sanitize it, and the daunting smell that one gets when they step into a natatorium should be gone.

The systems will be installed by Sunbelt Pools of Dallas and will cost roughly $92,000. The system also has four light bulbs that have to be replaced roughly once a year to keep it running effectively. The cost of each one of those bulbs is $1,000. “The cost will be offset by the amount we save on chlorine,” Citty said. “It will be paid for out of fund balance.”

Outside of school groups, user fees are charged. The board does not anticipate any of these fees going up as a result of the new system.

“The water in that pool never sits still,” Citty said. “We have diving programs, water polo, senior activities and that pool is used by hundreds of people everyday.”

Other cities in the area have installed the system; such as the Oak Point natatorium in Plano, The City of Allen Natatorium, Denton Natatorium, SMU Perkins Natatorium and the city of Frisco.

“We should have done this eight years ago but the technology wasn’t there,” Recreation Complex Supervisor for Oak Point Pool K’Ann Parham said. “It is an expensive system up front but it is well worth the cost.”

Parham explained that it wasn’t her asthmatic kids that were complaining, it was her swim and dive teams and now that the system has been installed everything is much better. Parham also confirmed that her pool has saved money on chemicals because they do not have to put as many in now that they have the new sanitation system. They purchased their system last fall.

“Our board is kid-centered,” Citty said. “They view this as something that can benefit hundreds of kids. The introduction of the system will help kids with asthma and destroy chloramines.”

The system is thought to last for a long time because it is made out of stainless steel and shouldn’t rust. According to Citty the system also has no moving parts. The system is set to be installed in late August. The pool will close from Aug. 2 to 18 to install the system and perform routine matenience needed for the pool.

UV News June 03, 2008: Moscow Sewage Water to Be Purified With UV

Ultraviolet (UV) sewage water purification technology will be introduced at all Moscow water purification stations by 2014, the Moscow Water Supply Service (Mosvodokanal) told Interfax on Tuesday.

"Back in 2007, one of the largest UV-decontamination plants in the world processing 1 million cubic meters of water in 24 hours was brought into action at the Lubertsy purification plant," he said.

"This technology reduced the station's load on purifying sewage from nitrogen and phosphorus by 5,600 tonnes, or 14%, in 2007 and by 7,510 tonnes, or 12%, in all the monitored months," he said.

The employment of this technology at Moscow purification stations will help significantly improve the quality of water in the Moscow River both within the city boundaries and in its lower reaches and will also have a positive effect on the environment in the regions adjacent to the Volga and Oka river basins, he said.

UV News May 07, 2008: Goodman Pool gets $10,000 for UV purification
The Capital Times, Madison, WI

The Madison City Council voted Tuesday night to give the Parks Division an additional $10,000 for the installation of an ultraviolet water purification system at the Goodman Pool.

Pool Manager Bonnie Griswold said the UV water treatment system is needed in addition to chlorine as a safeguard to keep the water clean.

Nationally, the 2007 swim season saw a 24 percent hike in Cryptosporidium outbreaks, including one in the Salt Lake City area that led to children under 5 being banned from city pools, Griswold told the council.

Germs causing recreational water illnesses are killed by chlorine, but chlorine is a slow acting disinfectant, she said.

The Goodman pool closed 16 times last year due to fecal accidents. It takes about 45 minutes to inactivate E. coli, the hepatitis A virus, and the giardia parasite, Griswold said.

In other cases it takes time to kill the germs and some germs like Cryptosporidium can live in a pool for days, she said.

"It would be difficult for our facility to survive that," Griswold told the council. It would interrupt the pool's programming and erode the public's confidence, she said.

UV light, which is used in other Madison pools, acts instantly and provides a non-chemical, environmentally friendly treatment option to address both chlorine resistant pathogens and chloramines -- which are irritating to a person's eyes and skin.

The new technology is highly effective and reliable, Griswold said.

State legislation is pending that requires UV water purification and filtering systems in all future public pools.

As more people use the Goodman pool, there are going to be more outbreaks, Griswold said.

It's a matter of educating the public that children shouldn't be swimming when they are ill, and that young children should wear waterproof diapers or "Little Swimmers" when they go swimming, she said.

UV News April 21, 2008: Aqua New Jersey Receives Award for UV Treatment Plant from Water Resources Association

$2.2 Million Facility Is a First Using UV Disinfection in New Jersey

Aqua New Jersey, Inc. (Aqua) received the Business & Industry Award from the Water Resources Association of the Delaware River Basin’s (WRA) at its 26th Annual Recognition Dinner held last night in Philadelphia.

Aqua received the award for the installation of advanced ultraviolet (UV) water treatment in New Jersey.

The state-of-the-art UV treatment facility, located in Lopatcong Township, uses UV light treatment to enhance water quality for approximately 10,600 Aqua in Phillipsburg and Lopatcong, Pohatcong and Greenwich townships. Aqua was the first utility to use UV in this particular type of application and on this scale.

Aqua New Jersey President William Davis accepted the award on behalf of the company. “We are extremely proud to have been selected this prestigious award from such an important organization in our industry and our region,” said Davis. “These treatment facilities demonstrate how creative thinking coupled with technology can lead to cost-efficient solutions that serve public health and protect the environment.”

If Aqua had proceeded to build a traditional filtration plant, the cost could have been as much as $12 million. Davis said the company was able to effect the more affordable solution thanks to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection acceptance of the company’s proposed solution. The UV treatment facility has a capacity of 10.5 million gallons per day. Inside the plant, untreated water is disinfected with chlorine and then flows through a chamber where UV lights “saturate” the water. This “one-two punch” provides two distinct disinfection mechanisms, which effectively eliminate micro-organisms from what is already a very clean water source from wells along the Delaware River.

Aqua provides water and wastewater services to 150,000 residents across eight counties in New Jersey. It is a subsidiary of Aqua America, Inc., a large U.S.-based publicly-traded water company, serving approximately three million residents in 13 states.

UV News April 16, 2008: UV sanitizing aids Fresh & Easy’s green efforts

Fresh & Easy Neighborhood Markets is using a unique sanitization method for its reusable shipping and display packaging.

The El Segundo, California-based division of British retailer Tesco uses an ultraviolet sanitizing machine as a part of a companywide mission to reduce its environmental burden.

“This eliminates the need for harsh chemical cleaners and such,” said spokesman Brendan Wonnacott.

Wonnacott said the method, which as been used in the pharmaceutical industry, works just as well as typical chemical cleaning methods.

Once the packaging is used at the store level, it is transported back to Fresh & Easy’s distribution center, where it is sent through the machine to be sanitized and disinfected.

Fresh & Easy has made a commitment to reuse or recycle all of its packaging and display materials.

Through efforts like UV sanitization, Fresh & Easy avoided releasing more than 111,000 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from trucks transporting waste to landfills, according to the company. Fresh & Easy says it has reused or recycled 192.5 tons of display packaging since the stores started opening in November.

UV News April 15, 2008: UV brings disinfection benefits to the Food and Drink Industry
Process & Control Today

Despite the huge advances in cleanliness and disinfection techniques, the ongoing battle against potentially dangerous micro-organisms and microbial contamination in food continues. Part of the problem has been the ability of microbial organisms to adapt and survive traditional chemical treatments and continue to thrive, endangering the health of consumers. However developments in UV technology offer a safe, non-invasive solution.

Ultraviolet light is a natural component of sunlight. However, using higher energy wavelengths of UV light has the unique ability of destroying all dangerous micro-organisms. Unlike chemical disinfectants, which rely on chemical oxidation to disrupt the life functions of micro-organisms, UV is simply light energy that disrupts the DNA of harmful organisms. By disabling their DNA the life functions of these organisms are terminated, rendering them harmless. Because no chemicals are involved, consumers don’t have to worry about consuming potentially harmful chemicals or their by-products.

The food market is an increasingly regulated and safety-conscious one, driven by the growing demand for even higher quality standards. Food producing and packaging industries are now enjoying the unique benefits of UV technology. It kills all known spoilage micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses, yeasts, protozoa and moulds (and their spores). It is a low maintenance, environmentally friendly technology and as well as not introducing toxins or residues into the process, it does not alter the chemical composition, taste, odour or Ph of the water or liquid being disinfected either.

Whilst being designed to meet the stringent sanitary requirements of the food industry, today’s UV disinfection systems can usually be easily integrated in-line into process systems with little disruption to plant operations. Also, the maintenance requirements are minimal – modern Amalgam UV lamps only need replacing once a year.

Malcolm Snowball, Technical Director of GB Environmental, an eminent manufacturer of advanced UV treatment, believes that UV technology holds the key to continued safe and effective disinfection: “Put simply, microbial organisms cannot survive UV treatment. Rather than simply killing micro-organisms UV actually inactivates them by disrupting their DNA, so they are unable to either metabolise or reproduce. UV is also very simple to apply to surfaces of products. There is no fear of chemical contamination and there are no negative after-effects from the process.”

Although the basic principal of UV sterilisation has been recognised for over a century, it is the spectrum of applications and advances in technology that are bringing it to the forefront today. “Advances in UV lamp technology have been vital in the development of the sector,” says Malcolm. “In the past energy consumption of the lamps has been an issue with some providers. However, a lot of effort has been made to address these issues and we at GB Environmental use reduced energy Amalgam UV lamps, which are three-times more efficient than medium pressure lamps and cut down the running costs significantly.

“Our products also focus heavily on making servicing and maintenance of UV equipment easier. With water cleansing, for instance, proteins within the water build up on the UV lamp and need to be removed. The only way to do this is to break the bond between the protein and the lamp sleeve. Our Safeguard™ UV water treatment product uses eight scrapers with Titanium Dioxide cleaning heads which are actually activated by the UV light and become an oxidizer, removing the proteins. The process can be periodically operated by users, is totally safe, non-toxic to humans and can even be used in hard water areas.”

Surface disinfection is another area where UV comes into its own. Simple UV tunnels can be installed on existing process lines to disinfect meat, poultry or eggs prior to packaging, or before they are transferred to High Care areas. Surface disinfection systems are also ideal for sterilizing food handling utensils, conveyor belts and packaging materials.

For food processors seeking to improve the quality of their product, UV is an economic, realistic option for many applications. The introduction of UV tunnels has also allowed a broad range of food manufacturers, from bakeries to meat processors, to give food handling a high level of disinfection. It is already a well established method of disinfecting drinking water throughout the world, and is also widely used for high purity uses such as pharmaceutical processing and semiconductor manufacturing, where water of the highest quality is essential. UV is also an environmentally friendly technology that allows processors to reuse wastewater, minimizing discharges.

UV News April 14, 2008: GB Environmental divisional reorganisation to target the Food and Drink Industry
Process & Control Today

GB Environmental, one of the world’s key manufacturers of advanced ultraviolet (UV) treatment equipment, has announced a divisional reorganisation of the company to focus on the Food and Drink industry. The reorganisation follows on from the company’s recent acquisition of Kaiku Ltd, which now joins the group as Kaiku Process Solutions to help it focus on this key market sector.

Commenting on the announcement, Sales and Marketing Director Ralph Coney, says: “It makes sense to manage our business in three divisions to tackle the specialist needs of different sectors. Kaiku’s expertise in product monitoring for the Food and Drink Sector perfectly compliments our UV capabilities providing the abilty to offer total solutions to this industry. Our GB Municipal division will cater for Municipal and Industrial water users. The UV Care division will continue to specialise within Healthcare, the Built Environment and Leisure.”

The Kaiku Process Solutions division, within GB Environmental, is the result of the company reorganisation and the acquisition of Kaiku Ltd. This means that GB Environmental can now offer Kaiku’s unique patented i-Pipe, an on-line fluid monitoring system, which detects changes in the chemical formulation without the need for invasive probes or manual sampling. This gives benefits such as greater control of ingredients and throughput, minimal downtime in the event of problems, elimination of manual errors and also minimises batch waste and prevents recalls.

The i-Pipe advanced monitoring equipment compliments GB Environmental’s existing range of cutting-edge UV treatment solutions for the Food and Drink industry. UV disinfection can be used in many aspects of food and drink production, from the supply water to finished products, ensuring at every stage that microbial contamination by bacteria, viruses, yeast and moulds is kept to an absolute minimum.

GB Environmental has an impressive portfolio of products that allows the company to offer UV solutions for liquids, solids, air and water. Combined with the process monitoring capability, the GB Environmental group now offers a complete solution to food and beverage processors.

UV News April 4, 2008: UV system to fight county pool germs
Deseret Morning News

WEST JORDAN - Salt Lake County-operated swimming pools are being equipped with ultraviolet light systems to help battle the parasite cryptosporidium and other bacteria that hang out in pools.
But health officials warn that technology never will replace hygiene when it comes to contamination illnesses.

Health officials and county Mayor Peter Corroon on Thursday showed off the first of the new UV light systems at the Gene Fullmer Recreation Center, 8015 S. 2200 West. All 24 Salt Lake County Parks and Recreation pools (some of the 18 county facilities have more than one) will have the UV systems, at a total cost of close to $1 million.

An outbreak of cryptosporidium along the Wasatch Front last year led to temporary barring of very young swimmers from public pools and heightened the rules on cleaning pools. The parasite, which lives in intestines, can be spread by poor hygiene and contact with contaminated water. The resulting gastrointestinal illness can be quite severe and last a week or two. More than 1,900 cases were lab-confirmed last year along the Wasatch Front; 30 is typical.

UV has proven highly effective against bacteria and parasites, but it's not a cure, and it's not the only tool being used to keep the water safe to swim in, says Teresa Gray, bureau manager over water quality and hazardous waste in the Salt Lake Valley Health Department.

The UV lights themselves are inside canisters, and the water goes through its normal filtration and then through the reaction chamber, says Lynn Remund of CEM Aquatics, which installed the units, manufactured by a Wisconsin company.
In two hours, about 150,000 gallons can go through one of the units to be treated by the UV lights. But swimmers can be exposed to contaminants in water that has not yet been treated — and they also can recontaminate water. So chlorination is still needed, although in lower doses.

There's still "some possibility of contamination," says Jim Bosserman, Salt Lake County project manager. "It's not a cure-all, but it will help avoid or manage an outbreak."
Pool operators, both public and private, in other cities and counties also are considering the UV light systems or have installed other technological options such as ozone to improve the ability to keep pools clean and safe.

UV News March 17, 2008: EPA orders sterilization of lake's water

SKANEATELES - Skaneateles Lake, 16 miles long and with a maximum depth of more than 300 feet, has long been known for being one of the cleanest bodies of water in the world. Besides serving the village of Skaneateles, the glacier-carved lake provides water to the city of Syracuse, along with municipalities such as Camillus and Elbridge.

The lake's water is so pure, in fact, that the municipal water systems do not filter the liquid. However, the Environmental Protection Agency wants to ensure the lake's water is as clean as possible.

As part of the guidelines for what's known as the “Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule,” which provides standards for unfiltered water systems, the EPA has asked the municipalities served by Skaneateles Lake to upgrade their systems.

Despite the water's purity, EPA representatives say the water potentially could contain some harmful parasites after it reaches the communities, so they ordered the municipalities to implement some method of sterilization. Both village and Syracuse leaders are considering installing ultraviolet lamps to “zap” the harmful organisms, said John Hunt, village director of municipal operations.

“We use what's called a 'filtration avoidance system,'” he explained. “That's pretty unusual in the context of water supply.”

The lake water is chlorinated and fluoridated. Until now, that was all the EPA required, Hunt said.

“Chlorination can kill certain types of microorganisms, but there are certain ones that chlorine has a very difficult time killing,” he said.

Two potentially harmful microorganisms are cryptosporidium, which can cause digestive problems in humans, and giardia lamblia, which can cause the intestinal disease popularly known as “beaver fever.”

Filtration will kill both parasites, Hunt said, but other technologies are available that don't require filters.

“The way the ultraviolet system works is, you put a bank of UV lights near your chlorinate, and that kills pretty much all your bacteria,” he said.

The UV systems, the plans for which Hunt said will be finalized in 2009, will be installed atop the water tanks on East Street.

“We'll have to cut into the infrastructure, then cut into the main pipe up at that tank farm to (install) the UV treatment system,” he said.

The completion of the system's installation, Hunt continued, depends on several factors.

UV News March 12, 2008: Pool operators hope to beat parasites with UV filtration systems
The Salt Lake Tribune

LAYTON - Utah's public pools are gearing up for the summer - and taking extra precautions to make sure last year's outbreak of parasites is not repeated.
Some operators, like the Clearfield Aquatic Center, are installing ultraviolet sanitation systems to guard against a parasite called cryptosporidiosis. The parasite caused almost 2,000 cases of reported illness last year.

The new equipment isn't cheap - Clearfield spent more than $88,000 on its system. Brigham City pool officials say UV filtration is the only way to make sure water is 100 percent clear of parasites, but it still isn't a perfect solution. While a pool may be clean in the morning, it could become infected within an hour of opening.

UV News March, 2008: Engineering Methods for the Control of Airborne Infections
Harvard School of Public Health

Boston, MA - From July 14 to July 25 the Harvard School of Public Health will offer a two-week course on Engineering Methods for the Control of Airborne Infections: An International Perspective.

Educational Support Provided in Part By

World Health Organization
World Health Organization

Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Center for Disease Control and Prevention

National Institute of Health
National Institute of Health

Lectures and laboratory workshops are designed to equip engineers from around the world with the technical skills and methods used to control infections that are predominantly or partially airborne.

Who Should Attend
 • Professional engineers
 • Architects
 • Health and safety specialists
 • International health workers
 • Government agency employees
 • Relief and response teams
 • Academics

Program Overview
This two week, multi disciplinary continuing education course is globally unique in that it brings together in one place a body of technical expertise common to the control human airborne infections. These include tuberculosis (including drug resistant strains), pandemic influenza, SARS, and selected bioterrorism agents.

Control strategies will range from mechanical ventilation, filtration, and the design and use of space, to the proper application of germicidal UV air disinfection and natural ventilation. The course will include didactic lectures, laboratories, and interactive workshops focusing on problem solving in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings

The strategies covered will be applicable to preventing transmission in workplaces, including clinics, hospitals, laboratories, and congregate living settings. Experienced faculty will be drawn from Harvard, CDC, NIH, and other domestic and international sources.

Upon Completion Of This Program, Participants Will Be Able To Plan and Assess:
 • Engineering interventions and outbreak preparedness, in the context of a comprehensive infection control plan for tuberculosis, influenza, SARS or select airborne bioterrorism agents
 • Optimal utilization of available indoor space, including laboratory design to reduce airborne transmission, protecting workers, and specimens
 • Natural and mechanical ventilation, engineering interventions -filtration, UV, and the proper function of biological safety cabinets
 • How to recommend and fit test personal respiratory protection
 • Bioaerosol behavior in indoor spaces, effects of humidity, sunlight, and other factors
 • Directional airflow: design and measurement of relative room pressures for isolation
 • Air filtration in-duct and free-standing room air disinfection units: use, selection, limitations, and maintenance
 • Ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection: theory, system design, fixtures, UV measurement, safety, limitations, and maintenance. Upper room versus UV in ducts or room air moving devices
 • Hospital design and space utilization for optimal control of airborne infections
 • Local ventilation: booths and rooms for sputum collection, bronchoscopy, and other high-risk procedures

Wednesday, July 16, 2008
8:00 History and Theory of UVGI
9:00 UVGI in Ventilation Ducts and Free-Standing Air Disinfection Units
10:15 Upper Room UVGI: Theory, Design, Fixtures, Measurements, Safety, Maintenance
11:00 UVGI Equipment: Maintenance and Repair
1:00 UVGI Meters and Measurements – Upper and Lower Room
2:30 UV Measurement Laboratory
3:30 Upper Room Design – Hands-On CAD and Other Methods

UV News February 28, 2008: Upgraded UV System with Auto Wiper Installed

Erlanger, KY -- The operators of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Richmond, BC, Canada, have opted to replace the existing low pressure UV disinfection system with a high output medium pressure UV system from Aquionics. The WWTP serves the Riverport Sports and Entertainment Complex and surrounding residential areas in southern Richmond, near Vancouver.

The facility decided to switch to medium pressure UV because cleaning the low pressure system was very difficult. Each of the two low pressure units contained 24 lamps – automatic wiping is not an option with that number of lamps, so cleaning had to be done either manually or with chemicals. This is an extremely time consuming process that required the entire system to be shut down.

The two Aquionics units, however, each contain just two medium pressure lamps, each of which is fitted with an automatic wiper that keeps the quartz sleeves clean during normal operation. There is no need to shut down the system for manual or chemical cleaning and no danger of damaging the lamps or exposure to wastewater.

The Aquionics units are installed after a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and can treat a combined flow of up to 600 gallons per minute (2271 litres per minute) of wastewater from the adjacent sports complex and residential areas. The disinfected wastewater is discharged into the Fraser River.

Each of the UV units is fitted with a monitor which measures actual UV intensity and dose from the two lamps – providing real time information which can be downloaded for record keeping. Operating the UV system is simple and, when lamps need replacing, it can easily be carried out by on-site staff.

UV News February 26, 2008: Enva Delivers Advanced UV Technology Solution for Westmeath

Enva has announced the completion of its largest UV project to date for the supply, installation and commissioning of UV disinfection systems in part of the Westmeath water supply system.

Providing drinking water disinfection for four water treatment plants, including an installation at the recently upgraded Athlone water treatment plant, these systems will ultimately treat approximately 10 million litres of drinking water per day. They will provide greater protection from disease causing bacteria that may be present in the raw water, including cryptosporidium and a range of other chlorine resistant pathogens.

UV Technology
With UV technology, the disinfection process takes place as water flows through irradiation chambers (see Panel). A photochemical effect is created using UV light, and vital processes are stopped within the micro-organism cells, therefore making the micro-organism harmless. The UV light inactivates microbes by penetrating cell membranes to disrupt DNA molecules and prevent cell replication. When a microbe cannot replicate, it is incapable of damaging humans.

“UV is widely acknowledged as a critical component in the disinfection of a wide range of microbiological contaminants that can be found in drinking water. It has been successfully applied across the UK and United States for cryptosporidium inactivation, and research also shows that UV technology is effective against all known micro-organisms, and provides a highly effective solution against bacteria, algae, moulds, yeasts, viruses, cysts and protozoa,” points out Finbarr Pyne, technical development Director at Enva.

He continues: “Another key advantage of UV technology is that it also destroys micro-organisms which are resistant to chlorine, while UV does not form disinfection by-products which can pose health risks.”

Enva has now supplied in excess of 100 UV units of various sizes, with individual units ranging from low flow units to large flows of greater than 1,400m3 per hour. Units can be fully integrated with standard PLC or Scada controls, and are supplied in conjunction with ATG UV technology, which has over 25 years experience in the manufacture and application of UV technology across a range of international clients from large blue chip organisations and government controlled agencies. All units are third party bio-assay validated in accordance with the 2007 US EPA guidelines for UV technology.

Greg Duggan, Senior Engineer, Water Services at Westmeath County Council advises: “‘Westmeath County Council provides quality drinking water for over 66,000 people throughout the county on a daily basis. The Council had to deal with an outbreak of cryptospiridiosis in 2002, which greatly impacted on the quality of life for one third of water consumers. In order to meet the demands of the new European Communities (Drinking Water) (No.2) Regulations 2007 and minimise the threat of a micro-biological contamination to its water sources, Westmeath County Council has introduced innovative technology and work procedures as a highly effective solution to a complex risk.”

Key Support Services
Highlighting the key supports services offered by Enva, Finbarr Pyne adds: “As well as supplying and installing UV technology, Enva also offer the reassurance of a full and immediate after-sales service back-up. We offer full maintenance contracts by fully trained service engineers. We also provide a 24 hour callout service as part of our maintenance contract, while our facility in Cork carries a full range of back-up equipment.”

Enva Ireland specialises in providing innovative, efficient and cost-effective solutions for the treatment and disposal of a diverse range of wastes. The company is structured into seven divisions, with each division focusing on a certain business area and having its own identity within Enva. These divisions include Hazardous Waste, Water Treatment, Soil Treatment, Industrial & Automotive, Field Services, Underground Services and Foodservice Solutions. It operates four licensed facilities in the Republic of Ireland (Portlaoise, Shannon, Cork and Dublin) and two in Northern Ireland (Drumaness and Carryduff). It also has a Water Treatment operation based in Runcorn in the UK.

It operates high tech laboratories, at its Portlaoise, Shannon and Cork facilities, which focus on developing innovative treatment processes focusing primarily on recovery rather than disposal. According to Enva. It is currently the only environmental solutions company within Ireland to offer this level of specialised technical expertise combined with the infrastructure to deliver this service.

Enva Water Treatment specialises in accurately diagnosing operating issues at water and effluent treatment plants and then identifying and developing the most appropriate and cost-effective solution. It also provides a comprehensive range of water treatment products, as well as laboratory and engineering solutions for water and effluent treatment.

This division recently moved to a new purpose built 20,000 sq ft facility in Ringaskiddy, County Cork, where it employs 25 people and houses the company’s new state-of-the-art microbiological and chemistry laboratories. Enva hopes to expand its water treatment services to broader markets in Ireland and beyond, and in particular, to capitalise on the development of its unique electro-coagulation water recycling technology.

UV News February 4, 2008: UV disinfection in meat processing

Hanovia UV disinfection systems can improve safety standards and increase product shelf life in the meat processing industry. The compact systems are easily incorporated into many meat processing applications including wash water, brine chillers, meat marinade and pickle injectors and also for disinfecting wastewater for re-use. Disinfecting the water used to rinse carcasses and to wash process equipment and work surfaces can dramatically decrease contamination, increasing shelf life.

UV also reduces the amount of chlorine needed to disinfect rinse and wash water.

UV systems on recirculating brine chillers and meat pickle and marinade injectors are very effective at destroying harmful micro-organisms like Listeria and E.coli.

Depending on the model, some UV systems can operate very effectively through a wide range of temperatures and applications - from super-cooled brines to very hot sanitation cycles.

Additionally, in marinade applications, operating costs are reduced through less frequent fluid change-over.

The other application for UV in meat processing operations is as a non-chemical treatment for plant wastewater.

Increasingly, meat processors are caught between conflicting sets of regulations - while food hygiene regulations in many countries require increased use of water to rinse carcasses, environmental regulations are limiting the amount of fresh water that a plant can consume.

With only so much fresh water coming in, plants are forced to reduce capacity in order to meet these conflicting requirements.

By re-using disinfected wastewater in non-contact applications like chillers and cooling towers, more fresh water can be devoted to washing and processing.

Hanovia UV systems can be used in conjunction with other waste treatment processes to disinfect wastewater without chemicals, making it fit to use again.

By using this low-maintenance technology, plant production capacity can be increased and hazardous chemicals are eliminated.

Designed to meet the stringent sanitary requirements of the food industry, all Hanovia UV units can be easily integrated into plant control systems.

Maintenance requirements are minimal - typically the UV lamps only need replacing once a year, an easy operation which can be carried out by on-site personnel.

Automatic internal wipers keep the UV lamps clean, ensuring optimum UV output at all times - especially important in solutions with a high concentration of suspended solids.

Based in the United Kingdom, Hanovia is a world leader in UV disinfection technology for processing applications.

The company has over 80 years experience in the design, development, manufacture and distribution of UV systems worldwide.

UV News February 3, 2008: Closed vessel, medium pressure UV available in UK

After tremendous worldwide success of large, closed vessel medium pressure UV disinfection systems in municipal water and wastewater applications, Berson UV-techniek now offers them in the UK. Berson, a Halma company based in the Netherlands, will be building on the reputation of its British sister company Hanovia, and using the Hanovia extensive service support network. Berson medium pressure InLine systems are especially designed to provide closed vessel disinfection of both drinking water and wastewater at very high volumes and flow rates.

Berson is the only manufacturer of medium pressure UV water disinfection systems to be certified to the stringent German DVGW Standard, W294 (Parts 1, 2 and 3) - the highest standard currently possible in the world.

Major advantages of closed vessel, medium pressure UV compared to open channel, low pressure UV systems include a much smaller footprint, automated, mechanical cleaning of the UV lamps, and permanent de-activation of micro-organisms.

Conventional low pressure open channel UV wastewater systems often need large treatment channels and many numbers of UV lamps, taking up valuable space that could be used for other purposes.

Berson closed vessel, InLine medium pressure systems, on the other hand, have a very small footprint and can easily be integrated into existing pipework with minimal disruption: they are already widely used in Germany, France, Scandinavia, the USA and Australia.

Keeping all the UV lamps clean in open channel, low pressure systems is also a difficult task and usually requires chemical dosing, a costly and time-consuming process which produces unwanted waste products which have to be dealt with effectively.

Closed vessel systems, on the other hand, use in-built automatic wipers which manually clean the quartz sleeves surrounding the UV lamps, doing away with the need for chemical cleaning.

Finally, microbial re-growth, known as photo-reactivation, has been shown to occur when micro-organisms such as E.coli are treated with low pressure UV and subsequently exposed to sunlight, as is the case with open channel, low pressure UV systems.

This does not happen with closed vessel medium pressure UV systems.

'We are delighted to be moving into the UK municipal water and wastewater market,' commented Sjors van Gaalen, Berson managing director: 'Our UV technology is well established on the European continent and in the USA and Australia, but relatively unknown in the UK.

We strongly believe that our unique offering of closed-vessel, medium pressure UV technology will prove just as successful here as it has done around the world'.

Berson, along with fellow UV companies Hanovia in the UK and Aquionics in the USA, is part of the Fluid Technology Division of Halma plc.

Together, the three companies make up one of the largest suppliers of UV disinfection technology in the world.

UV News January 25, 2008: UV Disinfection Reduces Byproducts

Erlanger, KY - It is now nearly three years since Poughkeepsies' Water Treatment Facility in New York state installed six Aquionics UV disinfection systems for drinking water treatment. In that time the closed chamber, medium pressure systems have been performing beyond expectations.

"We get approximately 5,000 hours of lamp life per UV system, but a few lamps have run for as long as 11,000 hours, which is excellent" commented Paul Lill, the facility's plant manager. "This means we only have to change the lamps about once a year while also reducing our running costs - always an important consideration."

Poughkeepsies' Water Treatment Facility serves a community of nearly 80,000, drawing water from the Hudson River to meet an average daily demand of 10.5MGD. Prior to installing the Aquionics equipment in March of 2005, chlorination was used in open settling basins, followed by filtration. This process required substantial chemical usage and produced significant disinfection byproducts.

With the addition of the Aquionics UV treatment equipment the amount of chlorine required for primary disinfection was significantly reduced, with a corresponding lowering of disinfection byproducts by up to 20%. Secondary, residual disinfection is provided by chloramines. The resulting disinfection levels complied with the new guidelines of the Surface Water Treatment Rule issued by the EPA.

The six Aquionics UV systems are situated downstream of the filters and operate in parallel. The medium pressure, closed channel design disinfects with far fewer lamps and with a much smaller footprint than comparable low pressure systems. Each chamber is fitted with UV monitors to measure actual UV fluence and dose for record keeping. With the addition of an optional online transmittance monitor, real time transmittance values are used to automatically adjust the dose pacing of the UV system.

"We originally considered alternative disinfection technologies to meet our goals," explained Lill. "The units' lower relative cost, their compact size which fits into our existing facility and the technical merit were all deciding factors in choosing Aquionics equipment."

To keep maintenance low, the systems are equipped with automatic cleaning mechanisms which keep the UV lamp sleeves free of organic deposits. When the lamps need replacing, it is a simple operation that is carried out by on-site staff.

UV News January 14, 2008: SANYO Provides Patented SafeCell UV Technology to Solve Contamination Problems

SANYO BIOMEDICAL SOLUTIONS, A division of SANYO Commercial Solutions provides patented SafeCell UV technology to solve contamination problems that occur in cell culture incubators

The CO2 incubator remains an essential tool for research and clinical laboratory work by directly exposing cell cultures and culture media to an enriched environment for growth.

Manufacturers of laboratory incubators claim to solve contamination problems with various approaches to incubator design through heat sterilization. Some of these techniques are moderately successful but limited in terms of long-term efficacy and convenience. Most require periods of downtime during which cultures must be removed and placed in other incubators to maintain temperature, humidity and CO2 levels. The problem with this is that all cell cultures, CO2 sensor, HEPA filters and other components must be removed prior to the process, effectively suspending the productivity of the incubator often in excess of 24 hours. It is an inefficient use of time and lab resources.

SANYO’S solution to this problem is patented UV technology. “In 2001 SANYO Electric Biomedical Co., Ltd. introduced a cell culture CO2 incubator that employs an isolated narrow-bandwidth ultraviolet (UV) light decontamination to destroy airborne contaminants in the incubator chamber, as well as water-borne organisms in the humidity water reservoir. Integrated with copper enriched interior surfaces and components which inhibit the growth of organisms without surface discoloration, the SANYO incubator offers an optimum cell culture environment through a process of Active Background Contamination Control™ which protects cultures in vitro, and minimizes frequent chamber cleaning and downtime,” exert from A Comparative Analysis of Ultraviolet Light Decontamination vs. High Heat Sterilization in the Cell Culture CO2 Incubator, with the Use of Copper-Enriched Stainless Steel Construction to Achieve Active Background Contamination Control whitepaper. A directional air-flow and containment plenum surrounds the UV exposed humidity reservoir in a removable, stainless steel pan. It is designed to independently destroy airborne particles during door openings, as well as contaminants that typically grow in the water reservoir. Because the UV lamp is visibly isolated from the cell culture chamber by a plenum cover, UV sterilization of air and water remains in process while cell culture continues uninterrupted.

In 2006, comparative testing commissioned by SANYO and performed by a certified independent testing laboratory confirms that the SANYO ultraviolet light sterilization process is as effective against bacteria, yeasts and molds as high heat sterilization at sustained temperatures ranging from +90C to +140C offered in competitive products. Additionally, the latest SANYO release, Model MCO-18AIC-UV, maintains an optimum cell culture environment in vitro through a process of "Active Background Contamination Control,” which a heat sterilization technique absolutely cannot replicate.

UV News January 12, 2008: Detroit Lakes Community Pool Gets Ultraviolet Fix - Air Quality Was a Problem for Some Swimmers
Pippi Mayfield DL-Online

Several years ago, the Detroit Lakes Community and Cultural Center staff noticed the bricks on the outside of the building by the pool were turning white. After investigating, they found moisture from the inside was being forced outside.

“It obviously concerned us as to what’s going on,” CEO Stu Omberg said.

They found the problem wasn’t the pool but rather the air. In the world of pools, air pressure should be tested at negative. The DLCCC’s was positive.

There are two different ways to treat pools — chlorine, which the DLCCC uses, and bromine, which is extremely expensive.

“The vast majority of commercial pools use chlorine,” Omberg said.

Chlorine is used to burn the bacteria in the pool. The downside of chlorine is that it degrades and turns into chloramines, which are lifted into the air and can cause respiratory problems for some people.

Tracy Boldt of rural Frazee said her 10-year-old daughter was one of those people.

“She would ingest the gas Monday and by Thursday she’s having a severe migraine headache,” Boldt said. “By the weekend she was fine, detoxifying, you could say.”

An avid swimmer who formerly swam for the DL Sunfish, and now swims for an independent group, the girl suffered symptoms that included painful headaches, respiratory problems, vomiting and even passing out and hallucinations.

“She said the floor levitated up at her in the shower,” said Boldt, who is a registered nurse. The girl was taken to a doctor and a chiropractor, but the symptoms didn’t go away until she quit using the community center pool.

“We eventually realized it was the pool, and that took care of it. She’s fine now,” Boldt said. “She swam at the indoor pool at Perham all summer and she swims at the Detroit Lakes High School pool now. She’s got no problems.”

It’s the chloramines that have been causing the problems at the DLCCC. Omberg said staff checks the chlorine levels in the pool twice a day to make sure they are within state health department guidelines, which they always have been.

“Pool water wasn’t the issue,” he said.

The Minnesota Department of Health cannot test air quality, he said, but when it tested the water quality, the DLCCC always passed the test.

As the chloramines formed and the pool would fill with more people, with the splashing, the chloramines would lift into the air and attach to objects in the room, causing items to rust.

Also, Omberg pointed out, chlorine is odorless, so it was the chloramines people could smell when walking into the pool area.

So, to solve the problem of the chloramines, the DLCCC received a $53,700 loan from the Midwest Minnesota Community Development Corp., the developers of the community center, to install an ultraviolet system to treat the water before it goes into the pool.

The system was installed in the pool at the end of last week and will be in the spa within the next 45 days.

Eight hundred gallons of water per minute are fed into the pool, and now that water will run through the ultraviolet system before hitting the pool. It will help kill the chloramines.

The water will be sanitized as it comes into the pool so the “chlorine doesn’t have to work as hard,” he said. It will eliminate the chloramines, and the air quality will improve within three days.

“This is state of the art, leading edge technology to treat water before it’s in the pool or spa,” he said.

With the installation of the system being the first step in the process, Omberg said various crews will be in and out throughout the next three to four months working to alleviate the air pressure problems in the pool.

He said he is “ecstatic” the DLCCC can provide the ultraviolet treatment system and that swimmers are excited because they know the benefit the system has on water and air quality.

UV News January 2, 2008: World to Focus on Improved Sanitation in 2008

NEW YORK, New York, January 2, 2008 (ENS) - A wastewater treatment project in the Russian city of Ufa is reducing the amount of raw sewage that flows into the Volga River basin. The project is part of a global push to improve sanitation this year - the International Year of Sanitation 2008.

Now, the municipal water utility UfaVodocanal is seeking to finish the work while at the same time reducing the environmental impact of the wastewater treatment process.

With this goal in mind, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, EBRD, has agreed to lend the utility 500 million roubles (US $20.4 million) over the next 13 years so that it can invest in cleaner and more energy efficient technology.

The loan will enable UfaVodocanal to treat sewage with ultraviolet disinfection technology and purchase methane tanks. These tanks will capture biological gas from the sewage and the gas will be burned off to produce heat for UfaVodocanal's own use.

"The ultraviolet technology will enable the utility to significantly reduce the levels of untreated sewage discharged into the Belaya River," UfaVodocanal Director Viacheslav Semenovich Gordienko.

"This project will give a boost to the economy of the city and is key in improving environmental standards," said Ufa Mayor Pavel Rurikovich Kachkaev.


The International Year of Sanitation 2008 was established by the UN General Assembly in December 2006 to accelerate progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goal of reducing by half the proportion of people living without access to improved sanitation by 2015.

A World Health Organization, report issued Tuesday finds that while coverage has been advancing in many countries, recent estimates consistently show the sanitation component of the MDG sanitation target to be off-track, with "a projected shortfall of 550 million people in 2015 from target achievement."

The estimated total spending, excluding program costs, required in developing countries to meet the sanitation component of the MDG target is US$ 142 billion, the World Health Organization report calculates. This translates to per-capita spending of US$ 28 for sanitation.

Annually, this translates to roughly US$ 4 billion for water supply and US$ 14 for sanitation, an annual combined total of US$ 18 billion.

Their results compare with previous estimates of the annual investment costs of increasing coverage to meet the water and sanitation MDG target, which have been variously estimated at US$ 9 billion, US$ 11.3 billion, US$ 18 billion and US$ 30 billion.

"Given the lack of up-to-date data on actual combined spending by governments and households on water supply and sanitation in developing countries, it is not possible to estimate the current financing gap at the global level," according to authors Guy Hutton of the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and Jamie Bartram of the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.

Improved sanitation includes clean, safe toilets, wastewater management and hygiene promotion, all of which prevent the transfer of pathogens in human waste. When not treated safely, this waste adversely impacts health and impedes social and economic development.

The International Year of Sanitation will include major regional conferences on sanitation to share best practices and help accelerate progress, including those that focus on school sanitation.

It will also help encourage public and private partnerships, to help tap into the comparative strengths of each sector, advocate and raise awareness on sanitation, leverage additional funding, and develop country-level plans of action.

Many activities and events are planned both inside and outside the United Nations for Sanitation and Hygiene Week March 15 to 21 and World Water Day on March 22.

UV News December 3, 2007: Halo Technologies Introduces The World's Only Germ-Killing Vacuum

The Halo™ UV-ST Ultraviolet Vacuum Uses Ultraviolet Light and HEPA Filtration to Attack Unseen Household Microbes Without Harsh Chemicals

CHARLOTTE, NC — The Halo UV-ST is a new chemical-free vacuum — the only one of its kind — that combines powerful pick-up and ultraviolet technology to clean dirt and kill germs that lurk and thrive in carpets, including dust mites, molds, viruses and bacteria, even MRSA.

Carpets — which are rarely, if ever, disinfected — cover more than 70 percent of floor space in homes and contain the highest concentration of invisible germs and allergens. A typical carpet harbors more than 100,000 dust mites per square yard; these dust mites are the number one indoor cause of allergies. Ultraviolet light in the "C" spectrum (UV-C) disables the DNA of these household pests, destroying their ability to multiply. The Halo UV-ST contains a UV-C bulb chamber at the bottom of the unit. Activating the ultraviolet technology while running the vacuum over carpets, instantly kills germs living between the fibers.

Ultraviolet light technology has been used for more than 60 years to purify drinking water and sterilize operating rooms and medical instruments. Independent researchers have tested and proven the efficacy of the germ-killing benefits in the Halo UV-ST.

"The Halo UV-ST is more than a high-performing traditional vacuum cleaner; it's the next generation in home cleaning. We've all disinfected other areas of our home for years. Now our Halo Ultraviolet Vacuums allow you to achieve that same level of clean in your carpeting without any extra effort and without using any harmful chemicals," said Ken Garcia, CEO of Halo Technologies, Inc. "This product will change the lives of allergy and asthma sufferers, parents with young children, pet owners and anyone that wants a cleaner, greener home."

The Halo HEPA filter provides the highest level of air filtration available and is comparable to the quality level used by the military in fighter planes. The new soft-top model is equipped with special features that optimize the vacuum's breakthrough technology, including: versatile attachments for easy access to hard-to-reach places, an extra-long 31-foot power cord, and a height adjuster to accommodate various surfaces, including tile and wood. The UV-ST has a 14-inch cleaning path and two powerful motors, yet it only weighs 16.8 pounds.

UV News November 12, 2007: Clean Air in the Arctic Circle thanks to ozone-generating UV Lamps

Ozone Generating Lamps Eliminate Odours in Finnish, Santa Theme Park

Every year in the time running up to Christmas, Santa is visited by many children and their parents in the Santa Park theme park close to the Arctic Circle in Lapland/Finland. Santa Park is housed in a mountain and, in a large central hall, the visitors are entertained by a number of activities. For example, elves learn in a school how to prepare and pack the children’s presents; in an ice gallery, visitors can marvel at many animals sculpted in ice; and, being Finland, there is naturally an ice bar, where cocktails can be enjoyed in ice glasses at the bar on an imaginary beach.

The Santa Park is open only once a year during advent. During the rest of the year the site is shut. Consequently, moulds are formed as well as associated unpleasant smells and these are controlled by means of UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight.

The physical method UV radiation is an economical and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical treatments. By using special Heraeus UV lamps ozone is generated from the oxygen in the environmental air. To do this, the emitted wavelength of 185nm is used. The longer wavelength of 254 nm photolysis the ozone to excited oxygen, which oxidises the long chain molecules.

The company BonAir manufactures and sells ozone-generating equipment in Finland and this equipment is fitted out with UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight. The systems are fitted with four ozone-generating, U-shaped 120 Watt lamps. The capacity of the large BonAir Ozonator allows the generation of 64 grammes of ozone per hour.

This system has been used to treat the 35,000 cubic metres of air in the tunnel system and the main hall at Santa Park, which has been treated two and half days. In addition, three smaller pieces of equipment are also used with a capacity of 3.2 gramme of ozone per hour. Finally, 300 metre long channels of the air conditioning system were supplied with ozone-containing air for six hours.

“The end result was fantastic. I destroyed all the mould and at the end there was no trace of the previous bad smells!” commented Raimo Vartiainen, managing director of BonAir in Finland. When the project was finished, Santa himself thanked Raimo Vartiainen and his wife personally.

Following on from the development of UV lamp technology by Richard Kch in 1904, Heraeus Noblelight can look back on over 100 years experience in the development, production and application of UV lamps. Through innovations such as Longlife technology Heraeus continues to set milestones in lamp technology to increase the productivity of industrial processes. Heraeus Noblelight is the original equipment manufacturer and preferred partner of system builders providing equipment for the disinfection of water, air and surfaces, as well as for industrial photochemical processes and oxidation.

UV News November 3, 2007: Alternatives to the bottled water

In 2006, bottled water sales worldwide totaled 164 billion liters, 7 percent of which was sold in Latin America, and half of that in Mexico.

One alternative to bottled water is solar water disinfection, a clean and cheap technology used to disinfect water in the home, created by Lebanese scientist Aftim Acra. The treatment consists of filling transparent plastic water bottles and leaving them out in the sun.

The heat and ultraviolet rays disinfect the water in six hours of sunlight or two full days under cloud cover, after which the water is safe for consumption.

The SODIS Foundation, named after the initials for this technology and based in Cochabamba, Bolivia, is promoting this system also in Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru.

UV News October 05, 2007: Ultraviolet Lighting During Orthopedic Surgery and the Rate of Infection
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American). 2007;89:1935-1940.
2007 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.

Merrill A. Ritter, MD*, Emily M. Olberding, BS* and Robert A. Malinzak, MD*

* The Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis Hospital—Mooresville, 1199 Hadley Road, Mooresville, IN 46158. E-mail address for M.A. Ritter:

Investigation performed at the Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis Hospital—Mooresville, Mooresville, Indiana

Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.

UV Disinfection of Operating Rooms (OR) Infection ControlBackground: Ultraviolet lighting is an alternative to laminar airflow in the operating room that may be as effective for lowering the number of environmental bacteria and possibly lowering infection rates by killing the bacteria rather than simply reducing the number at the operative site. The purpose of the present study was to compare the infection rates following joint replacement procedures performed by one orthopaedic surgeon with and without the use of ultraviolet lighting.

Methods: From July 1986 to July 2005, one surgeon performed 5,980 total joint replacements at one facility. In September 1991, ultraviolet lighting was installed in the operating rooms. All procedures that were performed before the installation of the ultraviolet lighting utilized horizontal laminar airflow, whereas all procedures that were performed after that date utilized ultraviolet lighting without laminar airflow. Factors associated with the rate of infection were analyzed.

Results: Over a nineteen-year period, forty-seven infections occurred following 5,980 joint replacements. The infection rate without ultraviolet lighting (and with laminar airflow) was 1.77%, and the infection rate with ultraviolet lighting was 0.57% (p < 0.0001). The odds of infection were 3.1 times greater for procedures performed without ultraviolet lighting (and with laminar airflow) as compared with those performed with only ultraviolet lighting (p < 0.0001). The infection rate associated with total hip replacement decreased from 1.03% to 0.72% (p = 0.5407), and the infection rate associated with total knee replacement decreased from 2.20% to 0.50% (p < 0.0001). Revision surgery, previous infection, age, total body mass index, use of cement, disease, and diagnosis were not associated with an elevated infection rate.

Conclusion: When appropriate safety precautions are taken, ultraviolet lighting appears to be an effective way to lower the risk of infection in the operating room during total joint replacement surgery.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Reposted with permission from Rights Department, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
Copyright 2007 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.

Full text: Ultraviolet Lighting During Orthopedic Surgery and the Rate of Infection



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