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UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet and IUVA website. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.

UV Articles 2007

UV News December 3, 2007: Halo Technologies Introduces The World's Only Germ-Killing Vacuum

The Halo™ UV-ST Ultraviolet Vacuum Uses Ultraviolet Light and HEPA Filtration to Attack Unseen Household Microbes Without Harsh Chemicals

CHARLOTTE, NC — The Halo UV-ST is a new chemical-free vacuum — the only one of its kind — that combines powerful pick-up and ultraviolet technology to clean dirt and kill germs that lurk and thrive in carpets, including dust mites, molds, viruses and bacteria, even MRSA.

Carpets — which are rarely, if ever, disinfected — cover more than 70 percent of floor space in homes and contain the highest concentration of invisible germs and allergens. A typical carpet harbors more than 100,000 dust mites per square yard; these dust mites are the number one indoor cause of allergies. Ultraviolet light in the "C" spectrum (UV-C) disables the DNA of these household pests, destroying their ability to multiply. The Halo UV-ST contains a UV-C bulb chamber at the bottom of the unit. Activating the ultraviolet technology while running the vacuum over carpets, instantly kills germs living between the fibers.

Ultraviolet light technology has been used for more than 60 years to purify drinking water and sterilize operating rooms and medical instruments. Independent researchers have tested and proven the efficacy of the germ-killing benefits in the Halo UV-ST.

"The Halo UV-ST is more than a high-performing traditional vacuum cleaner; it's the next generation in home cleaning. We've all disinfected other areas of our home for years. Now our Halo Ultraviolet Vacuums allow you to achieve that same level of clean in your carpeting without any extra effort and without using any harmful chemicals," said Ken Garcia, CEO of Halo Technologies, Inc. "This product will change the lives of allergy and asthma sufferers, parents with young children, pet owners and anyone that wants a cleaner, greener home."

The Halo HEPA filter provides the highest level of air filtration available and is comparable to the quality level used by the military in fighter planes. The new soft-top model is equipped with special features that optimize the vacuum's breakthrough technology, including: versatile attachments for easy access to hard-to-reach places, an extra-long 31-foot power cord, and a height adjuster to accommodate various surfaces, including tile and wood. The UV-ST has a 14-inch cleaning path and two powerful motors, yet it only weighs 16.8 pounds.

UV News November 12, 2007: Clean Air in the Arctic Circle thanks to ozone-generating UV Lamps

Ozone Generating Lamps Eliminate Odours in Finnish, Santa Theme Park

Every year in the time running up to Christmas, Santa is visited by many children and their parents in the Santa Park theme park close to the Arctic Circle in Lapland/Finland. Santa Park is housed in a mountain and, in a large central hall, the visitors are entertained by a number of activities. For example, elves learn in a school how to prepare and pack the children’s presents; in an ice gallery, visitors can marvel at many animals sculpted in ice; and, being Finland, there is naturally an ice bar, where cocktails can be enjoyed in ice glasses at the bar on an imaginary beach.

The Santa Park is open only once a year during advent. During the rest of the year the site is shut. Consequently, moulds are formed as well as associated unpleasant smells and these are controlled by means of UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight.

The physical method UV radiation is an economical and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical treatments. By using special Heraeus UV lamps ozone is generated from the oxygen in the environmental air. To do this, the emitted wavelength of 185nm is used. The longer wavelength of 254 nm photolysis the ozone to excited oxygen, which oxidises the long chain molecules.

The company BonAir manufactures and sells ozone-generating equipment in Finland and this equipment is fitted out with UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight. The systems are fitted with four ozone-generating, U-shaped 120 Watt lamps. The capacity of the large BonAir Ozonator allows the generation of 64 grammes of ozone per hour.

This system has been used to treat the 35,000 cubic metres of air in the tunnel system and the main hall at Santa Park, which has been treated two and half days. In addition, three smaller pieces of equipment are also used with a capacity of 3.2 gramme of ozone per hour. Finally, 300 metre long channels of the air conditioning system were supplied with ozone-containing air for six hours.

“The end result was fantastic. I destroyed all the mould and at the end there was no trace of the previous bad smells!” commented Raimo Vartiainen, managing director of BonAir in Finland. When the project was finished, Santa himself thanked Raimo Vartiainen and his wife personally.

Following on from the development of UV lamp technology by Richard Küch in 1904, Heraeus Noblelight can look back on over 100 years experience in the development, production and application of UV lamps. Through innovations such as Longlife technology Heraeus continues to set milestones in lamp technology to increase the productivity of industrial processes. Heraeus Noblelight is the original equipment manufacturer and preferred partner of system builders providing equipment for the disinfection of water, air and surfaces, as well as for industrial photochemical processes and oxidation.

UV News November 3, 2007: Alternatives to the bottled water

In 2006, bottled water sales worldwide totaled 164 billion liters, 7 percent of which was sold in Latin America, and half of that in Mexico.

One alternative to bottled water is solar water disinfection, a clean and cheap technology used to disinfect water in the home, created by Lebanese scientist Aftim Acra. The treatment consists of filling transparent plastic water bottles and leaving them out in the sun.

The heat and ultraviolet rays disinfect the water in six hours of sunlight or two full days under cloud cover, after which the water is safe for consumption.

The SODIS Foundation, named after the initials for this technology and based in Cochabamba, Bolivia, is promoting this system also in Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru.

UV News October 05, 2007: Ultraviolet Lighting During Orthopedic Surgery and the Rate of Infection
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American). 2007;89:1935-1940.
© 2007 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.

Merrill A. Ritter, MD*, Emily M. Olberding, BS* and Robert A. Malinzak, MD*

* The Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis Hospital—Mooresville, 1199 Hadley Road, Mooresville, IN 46158. E-mail address for M.A. Ritter:

Investigation performed at the Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis Hospital—Mooresville, Mooresville, Indiana

Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.

UV Disinfection of Operating Rooms (OR) Infection ControlBackground: Ultraviolet lighting is an alternative to laminar airflow in the operating room that may be as effective for lowering the number of environmental bacteria and possibly lowering infection rates by killing the bacteria rather than simply reducing the number at the operative site. The purpose of the present study was to compare the infection rates following joint replacement procedures performed by one orthopaedic surgeon with and without the use of ultraviolet lighting.

Methods: From July 1986 to July 2005, one surgeon performed 5,980 total joint replacements at one facility. In September 1991, ultraviolet lighting was installed in the operating rooms. All procedures that were performed before the installation of the ultraviolet lighting utilized horizontal laminar airflow, whereas all procedures that were performed after that date utilized ultraviolet lighting without laminar airflow. Factors associated with the rate of infection were analyzed.

Results: Over a nineteen-year period, forty-seven infections occurred following 5,980 joint replacements. The infection rate without ultraviolet lighting (and with laminar airflow) was 1.77%, and the infection rate with ultraviolet lighting was 0.57% (p < 0.0001). The odds of infection were 3.1 times greater for procedures performed without ultraviolet lighting (and with laminar airflow) as compared with those performed with only ultraviolet lighting (p < 0.0001). The infection rate associated with total hip replacement decreased from 1.03% to 0.72% (p = 0.5407), and the infection rate associated with total knee replacement decreased from 2.20% to 0.50% (p < 0.0001). Revision surgery, previous infection, age, total body mass index, use of cement, disease, and diagnosis were not associated with an elevated infection rate.

Conclusion: When appropriate safety precautions are taken, ultraviolet lighting appears to be an effective way to lower the risk of infection in the operating room during total joint replacement surgery.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Reposted with permission from Rights Department, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
Copyright 2007 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.

UV News October 5, 2007: In Rialto, UV rays treat water
San Bernardino Sun ~ ~ Jason Pesick

RIALTO - Before it's served to customers, all the water treated at the West Valley Water District's Oliver P. Roemer Water Filtration Facility runs through one of three disinfection tubes. But there's no chlorine or other chemicals in the tubes - just light.

West Valley is one of the first water purveyors in the state to treat water by zapping it with ultraviolet light.

"The UV is emerging technology for drinking water," said Ken Sikorski, West Valley's superintendent and chief operator.

Shining light on water might seem a fruitless cleaning method, but ultraviolet light disrupts the DNA of organisms in the water.

West Valley officials are waiting for state permits so they can ramp up their usage of the UV reactors, which cost about $400,000 each, so they can use less chlorine at the Roemer facility. All the water treated at the plant already runs through the UV reactors on top of undergoing the standard treatment processes.

Though it takes more energy to run a UV system than dosing water with chlorine, which the plant generates on-site, there are no byproducts. Chlorine produces leftover disinfection byproducts, which are carcinogens and can be harmful to people.

West Valley can't eliminate all the chlorine from its treatment process, however. Chlorine and UV rays each work better against different types of organisms. But Sikorski said the UV system will allow the plant to cut its chlorine use to a third of its current level. "You have to use them in combination," he said.

Whether it's done by light, chemical or both, disinfection is only one part of the overall treatment process.

Roemer, which opened in 1995, can treat 14.4 million gallons of water a day. The water comes in from Lytle Creek and the State Water Project and then makes its way to pretreatment. During pretreatment, the plant removes 80 percent of the solids in the water, Sikorski said.

Then the state water and the water from Lytle Creek are blended together before being filtered and disinfected. After being sent to another reservoir to sit for a few more hours, it moves on to customers around northern Rialto and Fontana.

UV treatment is gaining in popularity among sewage treatment plants in addition to water treatment plants, said Kurt Berchtold, assistant executive officer of the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board.

"Chlorine is a very hazardous chemical, so there are significant dangers and risks associated just with having tanks of that around."

UV News August 14, 2007: Heraeus Noblelight Presents a New Generation of Ozone Generating UV Lamps at the IOA/IUVA World Congress

Heraeus Noblelight is exhibiting at the congress of the International Ozone Association and the International Ultraviolet Association. Two Papers from Heraeus Experts will be presented at the IOA/IUVA World Congress 2007: “New Generation of Ozone Generating Low Pressure Lamps”; and “Measurements of Ozone Generating Low Pressure Lamps”

For the first time, the synergies and the applications of ozone and ultraviolet light (UV) will be discussed and evaluated at the same conference. The “International Ozone Association” (IOA) and the “International Ultraviolet Association” (IUVA) are together organising an international congress, which will take place from the 27 to 29 August in Los Angeles, USA. As a manufacturer of UV lamps, Heraeus Noblelight is a member of the IUVA and will be showing specialist light sources for the treatment of water, air and surfaces at the event. Two experts from the lamp manufacturer will present papers on ozone-generating lamps to the specialist audience: Dr Alexander Voronov, from Heraeus Research and Development will introduce a new generation of ozone-generating low pressure lamps; Dr Ralf Dreiskemper, manager of the Heraeus Measurement will talk on the subject of measurement of ozone-generating lamps.

New Generation of Ozone-Generating Low Pressure Lamps

Ozone production using low pressure lamps is a well-known process, whose full potential has still not been fully realised. By using special Heraeus UV lamps, ozone is produced from the oxygen in ambient air, by using the emitted radiation at a wavelength of 185 nanometers. Today, the challenges for UV lamps lie in significantly increasing efficiency at 185 nanometers, ensuring the consistency of the UV output over the operating life and extending lamp life.

With the introduction of the unique Heraeus Longlife coating, which was optimised for application at 185nm and ensures minimum losses, Heraeus Noblelight has developed a new generation of UV lamps. As a result, low pressure lamps have become an efficient and reliable vacuum UV light source, which can be used effectively in many ozone-generating applications. In addition, this Heraeus long-life coating significantly extends the life of UV lamps.

These lamps are matched with individual applications and are already finding application in water oxidisation and air treatment, such as the break down of greases and odours. In his paper, Dr Voronov will introduce various coating technologies and compare the emission and power loss at 185nm. He will present the parameters of the new generation of ozone-generating lamps and will demonstrate a simple model to allow practical calculation of the ozone concentration in an air flow for emission wavelengths of 185nm and 254nm. The combination of “Ozone and UV radiation” in a single lamp opens up new areas of application in air treatment and exhaust air treatment, for example in the destruction of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and in applications in “Advanced Oxidation”.

Measurements of Ozone-Generating Lamps

Lamp manufacturers have to carry out reliable lamp measurements to be able to specify product properties, technical data and operating life performance. For this reason, Heraeus Noblelight operates a modern and independent measurement laboratory, which is accredited to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005.

There are very few standard measuring procedures specifically for Vacuum UV and UVC lamps, which make comparisons between different products difficult. Furthermore, measurement data from system manufacturers is called upon as a basis for the design and development of new, more efficient systems. Lamp measurement results can be interpreted correctly only when taking measurement uncertainties into consideration. Incorrect interpretation of this data can possibly lead to wrongly dimensioned equipment drawings and system designs.

Dr Ralf Dreiskemper is in charge of the Measurement laboratory at Heraeus Noblelight and, in his presentation to the IUVA, he will provide a brief overview on the range of conventional measurements of UVC low pressure lamps at 254nm and on the source and extent of measurement uncertainties.

Radiometric measurements at wavelengths below 200nm, for example for ozone-generating lamps, are much more difficult. Some additional parameter must be taken into consideration. Radiation at 185 nm is strongly absorbed by the surrounding atmosphere. The absorption of radiation also influences measurements at 254nm to an unknown degree. Consequently, the simultaneous measurement of radiation at 185nm and 254 nm must be carried out in an inert gas or under vacuum in a sealed chamber. At the same time, different cooling conditions affect the intensity of the UV lamps and must be taken into consideration.

Together with his team, Dr Dreiskemper has developed a measuring procedure which provides for reproducible results and will present previously obtained data at the Los Angeles congress.

UV News August 7, 2007: UV replaces chlorine as disinfectant at AL plant

SCOTTSBORO, AL - The Alabama Department of Environmental Management completed its inspection of the Scottsboro Water, Sewer & Gas Board’s drinking water treatment plant and sewer lines on August 2 and is expected to sign off on the improvements, according to an August 7 article in The Daily Sentinel.

The department recently completed a $1.3 million upgrade to its water treatment plant. It also just completed a $929,000 sewer improvement project.

The two projects were part of the department’s five-year plan to improve the reliability and quality of its drinking water and wastewater systems, the article said.

Roy Light, the department’s general manager, said in the article that a recent upgrade to wastewater treatment facilities included the addition of a new screening system, replacement of corroded pipes, and the switch from chlorine to ultraviolet light for disinfection.

UV News July 31, 2007: New UV Disinfection System For Industrial Process Water
Process and Control Today /

Designed for process water disinfection in industries such as food, beverage and pharmaceutical manufacturing, Aquionics' new AF3 amalgam UV disinfection system offers a high microbial kill rate with low power consumption and low hydraulic pressure drop. Designed using CFD modelling tools, it is extremely flexible and can be installed either horizontally or vertically.

The AF3's unique configuration produces an axial flow through an L-shaped, elongated treatment chamber, increasing residency time and improving disinfection performance. It can treat flow rates of up to 265 gallons/hour (50 m3/hour).

With a life of up to 16,000 hours, the system's UV lamps produce up to three times the UV output of standard mercury low pressure lamps. A key feature of the lamps is their ability to operate at temperatures up to 104oF (40oC), compared to 64oF (18oC) for conventional low pressure lamps, without any significant loss of germicidal output and efficiency.

The AF3 also uses fewer UV lamps and less electrical power to generate a given UV output compared to conventional low pressure UV technology. Optimized for the delivery of drinking water disinfection doses, the germicidal performance of the AF3 is of the highest standard, satisfying international regulatory requirements.

To ensure the AF3 integrates simply and effectively with a variety of installation requirements, three levels of control are available, all with outputs linkable to building management or SCADA systems. Combining a microprocessor-based control system with an "intelligent" electronic ballast, the system's Electron controller provides a versatile combination of controls, alarms and clear indicators.

An optional UV monitor allows constant measurement of UV intensity delivered by the lamp, displayed on the Electron controller's screen as a percentage. Intensity output can also be linked to the plant SCADA system.

A version of the AF3 built to cGMP requirements for pharmaceutical and sanitary applications is also available. Constructed using highly polished stainless steel with FDA approved seals, all welds are full penetration and 'bug trap' free. Tri-clamp connections also make it simple to disassemble and verify cleanliness.

Aquionics (, a Halma Company, is a market leader in the manufacture, application and development of UV technology for progressive, non-chemical disinfection and microbiological control. The company’s systems are used in a wide variety of applications including food, beverage, pharmaceutical and semiconductor manufacturing.

UV News July 11, 2007: Hanovia Appoints Chinese UV Applications Specialist
Process and Control Today /

British UV disinfection company Hanovia has expanded its presence in China by appointing a Chinese Applications Specialist.

Dr Violet Feng, PhD, will support Hanovia's Chinese sales team in defining the correct product configurations for UV disinfection applications, as well as evaluating test results to ensure the company's product offerings are correctly matched to customers' requirements. In addition, Dr Feng will undertake original research with a number of Chinese universities on UV kinetics and their application in reducing TOC (total organic carbon) in water treatment systems for high purity applications such as semiconductor and electronics manufacturing, and for photochemical applications such as chlorine removal, chloramine and ozone destruction. Finally, she will also help with preparation of sales and marketing support material.

A graduate of Fudan University in Shanghai, Dr Feng obtained a PhD in Physical Electronics in January 2006. Her research involved developing new types of UV light sources for environmental protection applications. She designed and developed new excimer UV lamps and successfully used them to degrade organic compounds in water, and toxic gas from air. As part of her research she published ten scientific papers in national authoritative journals.

After graduation she worked for PerkinElmer (Shenzhen) Ltd as a Senior Development engineer in its Centre of Excellence Department, mainly in the development of flash lamps.

A highly qualified, dedicated individual, Dr Feng brings valuable scientific expertise to Hanovia which will ensure the company maintains its position as a leader in UV technology applications.

UV News July 5, 2007: WaterPure International Appoints Atmospheric Water Generator Distributor for the Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky Tri-State Region

WaterPure International, Inc. (OTCBB:WPUR) announced today the appointment of Midwest Future Technology, LLC as its Master Distributor for the Company's atmospheric water generator (AWG) products in the Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky region.

About The WaterPure Atmospheric Water Generator

The WaterPure Atmospheric Water Generator extracts moisture from the atmosphere through a condensation process and transforms it into absolutely pure, healthy drinking water. Multiple air and water filtration systems remove particulate matter smaller than .01 microns. Utilizing high intensity UV (ultra violet), it eliminates any microorganisms including bacteria and viruses. Test results of WaterPure water measured 99.9% purity, far exceeding EPA requirements. Operating on standard 110v power in the USA, it is extremely efficient and uses a minimal amount of energy to produce water. Depending on local electricity costs, a gallon of WaterPure water costs about 8 cents to produce. The unit requires no plumbing, water lines, or pipes and is easily installed. Driven by a microcomputer control system, it will stop generating water when full. The WaterPure purification system employs special filters to remove any unpleasant tastes or odor that may be present in the air. The result is fresh and delicious drinking water in its purest form.

UV News June 21, 2007: State gives FPUD green light to pursue UV treatment

After getting a blessing from state officials, the Fallbrook Public Utility District (FPUD) will pursue its plans to build an ultraviolet treatment plant at Red Mountain Reservoir.

For 22 years, the district has used the 440-million-gallon reservoir – tucked away on Mission Road – both on a daily basis and as an emergency storage backup.

Its massive 22-acre surface is not covered. But FPUD has never had a water quality problem with it. In fact, Red Mountain has an exemplary record of operation and has exceeded Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements.

But new EPA rules require all open reservoirs to be fitted with covers, or equipped with treatment plants by the year 2012. The UV treatment system, estimated to cost $3 million to $5 million, will be a huge savings over the $15 million to $20 million the district thought it would have to spend to build a conventional water treatment facility to meet the new standards.

“UV treatment is cutting-edge, very safe, much cheaper and quite a bit faster than the old-fashioned method of building a filtration plant and then pushing the water through,” said General Manager Keith Lewinger. Zapping the water with ultraviolet light will kill any pathogens that could be present in the water. FPUD’s water flowing into Red Mountain Reservoir is already treated before it arrives in Fallbrook, at the Lake Skinner Filtration Plant in Temecula.

And Red Mountain’s water quality has always met or exceeded stringent state and federal standards. The UV treatment technique received the first of several needed approvals last month from the California Health and Human Services Agency. FPUD will be budgeting construction money for the process with a goal of beginning construction in 2008. The system is already in its preliminary design phase.

FPUD will be the first water district in the state to use the technology to meet the new EPA regulations. The new technique won’t harm the mineral balance of the water nor will it noticeably affect the taste of FPUD tap water to the average customer, although it could reduce some of the contaminants that affect the taste.

The new EPA ruling was put in place as an additional cautionary measure so that water leaving a reservoir is treated one final time before being delivered to customers’ taps.

UV News May 29, 2007: Stringent Legislation To Catalyse Strong Growth Of The European Water And Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market
May 29, 2007, Business Wire

Research and Markets ( has announced the addition of the new Frost & Sullivan Report "European Water and Wastewater Disinfection Systems Markets" to their offering.

This Frost & Sullivan research service titled European Water and Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market provides a comprehensive analysis of this market and examines its major trends. It identifies the factors aiding growth in this market at present and examines the technologies, end users and regions that are contributing the most towards market revenues.

Stringent Legislation to Catalyse Strong Growth of the European Water and Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market

"Growing concerns about the harmful effects of bacteriological contamination in Europe are driving strong interest in water and wastewater disinfection technologies," says the analyst of this research service. "In the municipal sector, in particular, the European Union (EU) has introduced several legislations to enforce the compulsory disinfection of water and wastewater." Regulations such as the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) and the Bathing Water Directive (Council Directive 76/160/EEC) aim to control the quality of water supplied at the point of domestic use and the quality of bathing water, respectively. In the industrial sector, the robust growth of key sectors such as pharmaceuticals has led to increasing demand for high purity water free from bacteriological contamination. This has influenced advanced disinfection technologies such as UV and ozone, which have thrived on their quality of a chemical-free disinfection process. In addition, the accession of more member states to the EU is likely to offer opportunities in new and promising markets. The ongoing implementation of EU Directives in the Central and Eastern European region and the recent trend of rapid industrial growth are bound to offer substantial growth opportunities to disinfection companies particularly in the medium to the long term.

The municipal water disinfection sub-segment has traditionally been the strongest application segment for disinfection technologies. However, with relatively high levels of saturation in this sector, the municipal wastewater disinfection segment has experienced a rise in its revenue share and accounted for approximately 12.0 percent of the overall market. Driven by the legislative requirements of the Bathing Water Directive, the municipal wastewater treatment segment is set to increase its revenue share over the next six to seven years. In the industrial sector, the process water application segment dominates the disinfection systems. Demand from sectors such as food and beverages for non-chemical disinfection for their process water has benefited chemical-free solutions such as UV and ozone, while the high-growth pharmaceutical sector is meeting its process water disinfection technology needs with solutions involving UV or even membrane separation.

Promising Growth Ahead for UV Systems and Advanced Chlorination Methods of Disinfection

Chlorine-based compounds still retain a majority share of the market with an estimated 40.7 per cent of the total revenues in the European water and wastewater disinfection systems market in 2006. The current use of chlorine gas and liquid chlorine in Europe continues to be high, particularly in the municipal water and wastewater disinfection segment, but their revenues could be affected due to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in these methods. "Due to the issue of DBPs in conventional chlorination methods, the demand for UV and ozonation disinfection as well as advanced chlorination methods such as chlorine dioxide-based disinfection is expected to increase in the municipal drinking water segment," says the analyst. "The use of UV is expected to rise during the forecast period by eating into the share of the chlorine-based compounds."

Chlorine dioxide-based disinfection and electrolytic chlorination are expected to become more widely used as they have the advantage of requiring less chlorine, which results in less formation of DBPs. UV disinfection systems are experiencing high growth and could catch up with the chlorine-based compounds market by the end of the forecast period. Ozonation systems are facing considerable competition from UV and chlorine dioxide-based disinfection, which is hindering their growth to some extent. A reduction in the prices of these systems could help them become more affordable and achieve greater penetration outside the areas they are prominent in at present, namely, wastewater disinfection and process water treatment in industries such as food and beverages.

UV News May 28, 2007: UV treatment plan gets state's blessing
By: TOM PFINGSTEN, North County Times

FALLBROOK -- The Fallbrook Public Utility District will pursue plans to build an ultraviolet treatment center below Red Mountain Reservoir, officials said last week.

The system, which will cost between $3 to $5 million, has been given the first of several green lights needed from the California Health and Human Services Agency, said the utility district's chief engineer, Joe Jackson.

"We're going to be budgeting construction money a year from now, so we'd hope to start construction in the summer of 2008," Jackson said, adding that the district's consultant on the project, McGuire-Malcolm Pirnie of Santa Monica, has already started designing it.

"There are some details that we're going to meet with (state health officials) and discuss," which will happen in a meeting during the first week of June, he said. "We're going to take a preliminary design with us when we go."

The system is needed to fulfill a new Environmental Protection Agency rule that requires all open reservoirs to be fitted with covers or equipped with filtration plants by 2012, so that outgoing drinking water is treated one last time before being delivered to customers.

The water stored at Red Mountain has already been treated several times before it reaches the 440 million-gallon reservoir, which was built in the 1970's to provide an emergency source of drinking water for the greater Fallbrook area.

It's not practical to cover the huge Red Mountain Reservoir because it has a 22-acre surface area, and a standard filtration plant would cost too much, Jackson said.

The water flowing out of the reservoir has never violated water quality standards, and officials said they were frustrated at first with the new rule because it called for an expensive, full-blown facility that they said would be redundant in this case.

Using ultraviolet light to kill pathogens in the water is a much cheaper solution, but its one that required the state's blessing because it is a ground-breaking new technology, Jackson said.

A full-blown plant could cost as much as $20 to $30 million, he said, whereas the ultraviolet system will cost only $3 to $5 million.

"These (UV treatment systems) are pretty rare, they have to be approved on a case-by-case basis, and quite frankly, we're the first in California to take this approach with an open reservoir," he said.

The process is not necessarily better than old-fashioned filtration, but is simply cheaper and a bit faster, because in a filtration plant the water would have to be disinfected using a similar process after being filtered, anyway, Jackson said.

He said zapping the water with UV rays won't affect the mineral balance in the water, but could reduce some contaminants that harm the taste, although the difference probably won't be noticeable to the average customer.

Patti Roberts, a health services spokeswoman for the state, confirmed in March that Fallbrook would be the first water district in the state to use ultraviolet technology in this way.

"California does not have a UV system that treats water from uncovered finished water reservoirs, which are potentially exposed to contamination from birds, animals and the environment in general," Roberts wrote in an e-mail in response to questions from the North County Times.

"There are very few of these uncovered finished water reservoirs in California -- most have already been covered," she wrote.

On May 11, the state notified the utility district in a letter that its concept was acceptable under the EPA rule, but placed some conditions on the project.

One condition is that the district cannot relax the other measures it has in place now to ensure the water flowing out of Red Mountain Reservoir is clean.

The other conditions are highly technical and address everything from how effectively the system will kill pathogens to monitoring how algae effects the ultraviolet treatment process.

The letter that the state sent to the district says that officials will need to evaluate the final design before the project can be built and put into service.

Jackson said the district will have a better idea of its timeline after the meeting with state officials in early June.

UV News May 8, 2007: American Air & Water®, Inc. Awards Exclusive Canadian Distribution of UV Disinfection Systems
Yahoo News, May 8, 2007

American Air & Water®, Inc. awarded exclusive Canadian distribution of UV disinfection systems to Canadian Air & Water, Inc. in an agreement signed by the two companies. The exclusive distributor will market the UV systems under the corporate brand Canadian Air & Water™ and the distinctive sub-brands: Air Asure™ and Asure Water™.

American Air & Water®, Inc., a South Carolina Corporation, offers a complete line of UV air, surface and water disinfection systems which greatly reduce or eliminate microbial contaminants in the air or water for industrial, commercial and residential establishments. In addition, American Air & Water®, Inc. will support Canadian Air & Water, Inc. with proprietary knowledge, engineering and formulas for the UV systems as well as proprietary marketing materials, including video, web sites, catalogues, brochures and training information.

Canadian Air & Water will use its business expertise to promote the acquisition, resale, distribution and installation of UV air and water disinfection systems in Canada. Canadian Air & Water is dedicated to become a premier source for the most extensive line of ultraviolet air and water purification products and services currently available across Canada.

Canadian Air & Water's mission is to deliver the best air and water purification systems and services for virtually every building and process environment in Canada. "Customers come first in our philosophy of building strong relationships with our marketplace. Our people are what make us strong and we build our company with their dedicated support to develop an improved standard of protocols for critical air and water infrastructure in Canada."

Warren Lynn, President of American Air & Water®, Inc. states "We are pleased to have secured our relationship with a Canadian organization headed up with people like Robert Tulk. This is a match made in heaven that will help us achieve our vision of providing a healthier and safer tomorrow. To that end, we will continue to passionately pursue our mission of discovering and delivering products which enhance the quality of life. We will continue our journey and compile global information on health related products to facilitate, educate and collaborate with all available resources to create awareness with all people and help mankind by creating a healthier environment".

For additional information on the exclusive Canadian distributorship contact Warren Lynn or visit American Air & Water®, Inc. website:

UV News April 24, 2007: Hanovia Wins Major Contract To Supply UV Disinfection Systems
Process and Control Today News Room

Hanovia Wins Major Contract To Supply UV Disinfection Systems To Chinese Pharmaceutical Manufacturer

UV disinfection specialist Hanovia has won a major contract to supply UV disinfection systems to a leading pharmaceutical manufacturer in China. The UV systems will be used for ultra-pure process water disinfection.

"This is our largest ever pharmaceutical order for the Chinese market and cements our position as one of the leading suppliers of UV disinfection systems to the global pharmaceutical industry. The support of our local Chinese representative was instrumental in Hanovia winning this contact."

UV technology has many applications in the pharmaceutical industry, including process water disinfection, TOC (total organic carbon) reduction, ozone and chloramine destruction, and dechlorination.

UV systems are easy to install on existing pipework and require minimum disruption and site preparation. Depending on the level of use, the only routine maintenance required is changing the UV lamps every 12-24 months, a simple procedure that can be carried out by on-site personnel. Once installed, a plant can be kept operational 24 hours a day, without the necessity of shutting down the system for routine sanitation and sterilisation.

UV News April 20, 2007: UV disinfection facility going up
By Grant Warkentin /The Mirror

When it’s done, the building will house the city’s latest investment, a multi-million-dollar ultraviolet disinfection facility for Campbell River’s drinking water supply.

“The purpose of the ultraviolet light is to provide an extra level of protection,” Brooks said.

The city’s drinking water supply, found in a recent international competition to be fourth-best in the world, comes out of the John Hart Lake.

The city takes the water from BC Hydro’s penstocks, the three huge pipelines that carry water from the lake to the powerhouse below, where the water is used to generate electricity.

But before the water is sent through the turbines and out into the Campbell River, it’s tapped by the city, sent through a chlorination station to kill any bugs and diseases and is then pumped into city pipes.

Tests over the years have shown the water supply is remarkably clean, but the city believes it’s a good idea to add an extra step to the system, bombarding the water with ultraviolet light to kill any giardia or cryptosporidium which can make people sick.

The bugs aren’t significantly present in the water supply right now, but the city is looking towards the future.

“We just didn’t want to take any chances with our water system,” said Coun. Roy Grant, who accompanied Brooks Wednesday morning on a tour of the facility under construction.

The water supply flows from above the Campbell River into town through four pipes. The original 12-inch-diameter water line, installed when Campbell River was still a village in the late 1940s, is still in use but Brooks said it will soon be retired once all the upgrades are completed. There is a 30-inch-diameter main line, a 20-inch line and a 10-inch line which serve the city’s water needs and which are being diverted through the new ultraviolet disinfection facility.

The recent irregularities in water pressure around town have been because workers have to close some pipes and open others to install new pipes and work on re-routing the water through the new facility.

Once the work is done, water will flow from the penstocks into the city’s pipes, through the ultraviolet reactors and down towards the chlorination station and into the water mains. It’s a big job to keep water flowing while working on the pipes, but Brooks said the plan is to have it done before summer.

“We wanted to get this done before consumption starts increasing,” he said.

The total cost of the project is around $4 million. The provincial government is providing over $2.65 million for the project through its Community Water Improvement Program.

UV News April 20, 2007: Town UV system a go
By NEIL HORNER News Reporter

Qualicum Beach water drinkers should soon be able to quaff a glass of the clear stuff without having to cringe at the taste of added chlorine.

In a report to council this week, town engineer Bob Weir said the numbers are in for the proposal to use a decentralized ultraviolet disinfection system and the totals look good.

“The financial breakdown and estimate is consistent with the current budget allocation,” Weir said.

The proposed system will put an ultraviolet disinfection unit at each of the five wellheads from the Berwick well field, replacing the original, more expensive plan to route all the water through one central facility.

“The reactors are well suited to the decentralization proposed,” he said, noting the municipality has already purchased four of the five reactors required. With municipal staff doing much of the work, and a provincial grant of $411,433, the system can be installed within the budget allocation of no more than $800,000.

“The work plan contemplates the Town of Qualicum Beach acting as the general contractor, with pipe fabrication, masonry and SCADA control being subcontracted,” he said. “Town forces would undertake electrical, mechanical and general building construction.”

He noted installation of an emergency backup generator for the system can be incorporated at a future date.

When asked by Councillor Wendy Maurer whether the system would bring the municipality in line with the medical health officer’s requirements for water disinfection, Weir replied it went there, and beyond, noting many residents find the current state of the water unacceptable.

“Someone said they were paying their water bill under protest,” he said. “They said a cup of tea tasted like a cup of bleach.”

Although the system will meet Vancouver Health Authority requirements, Weir said it is still unclear if the municipality will be able to get rid of bleach entirely, but at very least they will be able to greatly reduce it.

“This completely satisfies the current VIHA requirements to disinfect our water, but they withheld comment as to whether they may ask for measurable residual [chlorine] in our system,” he said. “We hope we can deliver water people remember with the taste we like.”

Council gave Weir the green light to go ahead with the project.

UV News April 19, 2007: SET pushes AlGaN LEDs deeper into UV

GaN specialist Sensor Electonic Technology (SET) from Columbia, South Carolina, has developed 247nm UV LEDs using its proprietary migration-enhanced MOCVD growth technology.

President and CEO of SET, Remis Gaska, explained, “We have demonstrated working semiconductor devices with peak emission wavelength shorter than 253.4 nm, which is emitted by conventional UV light sources such as mercury lamps, widely used in fluorescence lamps and wafer/air disinfection systems.”

“We believe that AlGaN technology should allow us to fabricate devices with wavelengths as short as 230 nm.”

He also stated that the company had already made commercial shipments of the 247nm LEDs.

UV News April 3, 2007: Berlin researchers buy reactor for UV work

A leading optoelectronics research group at the Technical University of Berlin has ordered a Thomas Swan system to develop high-brightness ultraviolet LEDs.

Researchers at the Technical University of Berlin in Germany have ordered a Thomas Swan MOCVD reactor that they will use to develop high-performance ultraviolet emitters based on AlGaN.

Aixtron will install the 3x2 inch wafer reactor at the university's Eugene-Paul-Wigner cleanroom facility, alongside two other MOCVD tools. The epitaxy kit, which features new control and safety systems, is said to have a maximum deposition temperature of 1400°C.

Michael Kneissl, the head of TU Berlin's experimental nanophysics and photonics research group, said, "Alongside our existing systems, [the new tool] will be a useful platform for us to develop high-aluminum III-nitride laser diodes and high-brightness ultraviolet LEDs."

Kneissl's group is part of TU Berlin's highly regarded Institute of Solid State Physics, which has a strong reputation in cutting-edge optoelectronics research. Other scientists at the institute include Dieter Bimberg, a leading exponent of quantum-dot laser technology.

Kneissl himself was previously a research associate at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), where he developed blue-violet laser diodes for high-resolution printing applications.

Since then, he has also fabricated current-injection laser diodes on bulk AlN substrates.

Aside from applications in high-resolution printing and next-generation optical data storage, ultraviolet emitters based on AlGaN could potentially be used to decontaminate dirty surfaces and water.

Last year, the Korean LED manufacturer Seoul Optodevice and ultraviolet LED developer Sensor Electronic Technology signed a strategic partnership with the aim of scaling up production of AlGaN-based devices.

Kneissl's research group is also working on high-power InGaN lasers, green emitters, and GaN-based VCSELs.

UV News April 3, 2007: British UV disinfection system first for China

British water disinfection specialist Hanovia has just sold its first UV disinfection system for the Chinese automobile production market. The UV system purifies water used for spray-cleaning the vehicles and for electrophoresis dipping water. Situated at the end of the water treatment line and treating a flow rate of 20m³/hour, the Hanovia UV system destroys all water-borne microorganisms which, if allowed to grow, can contaminate the water system by blocking pipelines or growing in the electrophoresis tank.

'This is an important contract for us,' said Hanovia's managing director Craig Howarth.

'It is our first sale into the growing Chinese automobile production market and was only possible because of the strong local support of our Chinese sales office.

Hanovia was selected over other companies because of our strong quality and performance guarantees'.

The customer is Beijing Anke Membrane and Engineering Co, one of the most well-known and respected pure water package companies in the Chinese automobile industry.

The end user is a domestic automobile factory in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Province.

Commenting on the installation, Hanovia's Chinese sales manager Peter Wang said, 'The Chinese automobile production market is strong and growing.

UV News April 2, 2007: Drinking Water Purification Using UV Lamps Becoming Even More Important

Drinking water purification with UV lamps: High power amalgam lamps made by Heraeus Noblelight offer up to 16,000 operating hours and destroy germs and pathogens in drinking water without the need for chemicals.

Drinking water treatment with UV radiation was the theme of an international symposium of the materials network, Materials Valley e.V., which took place at the end of February at the Hanau headquarters of Heraeus, the precious metals- and technology group. The workshop was carried out as a joint venture involving the specialist light source manufacturer Heraeus Noblelight, the equipment and plant builders ITT Wedeco AG from Germany and the Canadian company Trojan Technologies. More than 70 engineers and technicians from Europe, North America and Asia attended and were able to gain an insight into the state of the technology through a wide range of presentations from both R&D and industry itself.

Alongside conventional techniques for disinfecting drinking water, notably the use of chemicals such as chlorine and ozone and the use of filtration systems, ultraviolet light is assuming increasing importance as an environmentally friendly alternative. Drinking water is a valuable and scarce resource, accounting for only 2.5% of the world's total water, with the remainder being salt water. Clean drinking water is even more rare. Untreated water containing germs is increasingly a health risk. Two million people die every year as a result of drinking untreated drinking water, resulting in infections and intestinal sicknesses. Worldwide drinking water consumption is now six times what it was in 1900, while the population over this time has only trebled. Impressive numbers, which do much to explain what has become one of the most important problems of our times. Will there be enough clean drinking water for us in the future and how can this be managed technically?

UV Lamps: more efficient and longer-lasting

The treatment of drinking water with UV radiation is a very effective physical process, used to disinfect water and to break down pollutants. The very high energy radiation (at wavelengths from 200 to 300 nanometers) destroys the genetic material and inactivates the individual cells of the pathogens in the water such as bacteria, micro-organisms, fungi or parasites and breaks down any chemicals harmful to health. Even chlorine-resistant parasites such as cryptosporidia are inactivated with UV light. An important benefit lies in the fact that this treatment technique does not use chemicals.

The first patented UV purification was carried out in France in 1910 using quartz glass lamps - a development going back to Richard Kuech, who was director of R&D at Heraeus. Today, the challenges for UV lamps are those of achieving significant increase in lamp efficiency and operating life.

To meet these challenges, Heraeus Noblelight has developed new UV lamps (high power amalgam lamps) which offer up to 16,000 operating hours at virtually constant UV output power, yielding significantly more power than conventional lamps after 8,000 hours. Thanks to this higher power and long operating life, systems builders now need to specify fewer lamps when designing disinfection plants. This naturally gives rise to the potential for significant savings in numbers of lamps, system components, energy consumption and maintenance costs.

"In Germany and its neighbours Austria and Switzerland, the use of UV lamps is a guarantee of the high drinking water quality which we take for granted. There will be a need for a single European standard in UV treatment to cater for the increasing European demand," explained Dr. Sven Schalk from Heraeus Noblelight.

UV technology is also becoming of increasing interest to system builders who operate worldwide. ITT Wedeco AG, of Herford / Germany, can already point to 50,000 installations worldwide, from small domestic units to large commercial plants, handling 90,000 cubic meters per hour, reported Peter Kruger from ITT Wedeco.

The increase in environmental pollution caused by medications and drugs in ground water was the theme of the presentation by Marc-Olivier Buffle of Trojan Technologies, Canada. In order to destroy very complex pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics and steroids, it makes good sense to use a combination of UV radiation and a strong oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide. This technique has already been used successfully in Holland's largest drinking water reservoir at Isselmeer. However in Germany, to date, this technique can only be used for wastewater treatment.

UV News April 2, 2007: UV disinfection system treats process water

Unilever Netherlands has installed a Berson UV disinfection system to treat process water at its margarine manufacturing plant in Rotterdam. The UV system ensures that all mains water used in the plant has a CFU*/ml count of less than 100. The water is used in the manufacturing of margarine brands such as Becel and Blue Band.

"Although incoming mains water is of very high quality, it cannot always be guaranteed to have less than 100 CFU/ml," commented a Unilever manager.

"The Berson UV system ensures the count is less than this by destroying virtually any microorganisms remaining in the water," he added.

Mains water is first drawn into a break tank before being pumped through the UV system at a flow rate of 40m³/hour.

From there it passes through a mesh filter to remove any large particles.

Based in the Netherlands, Berson UV is a world leader in UV technology for a wide range of applications, including drinking-, process- and waste-water treatment, dechlorination, ozone removal and TOC reduction.

UV News March 16, 2007: Conference hears about UV use in Europe

HANAU, GERMANY — Increasing demand in Europe for ultraviolet (UV) treatment of drinking water sources means there will be a need for a single European standard for UV treatment, said a spokesman for a German manufacturer of specialty lights, according to a March 15 company press release.

The release said Dr. Sven Schalk of Heraeus Noblelight spoke in Hanau in late February at an international UV symposium, a joint venture of his company, the equipment and plant builder ITT Wedeco AG, also of Germany, and Trojan Technologies, a Canadian-based UV systems manufacturer.

The gathering of more than 70 engineers and technicians from Europe, North America and Asia also heard Marc-Olivier Buffle of Trojan Technologies speak about combining UV radiation and strong oxidation to destroy complex pharmaceutical pollutants, such as antibiotics and steroids, that are now found in water sources, the press release said.

According to the release, this system is now being used successfully to treat drinking water in The Netherlands, but it can only be used in Germany for wastewater treatment.

Conference attendees heard statements saying that recent development of UV lamps offering longer operating hours and higher power means that designers of disinfection plants can specify fewer lamps, resulting in cost savings.

The conference was hosted by Materials Valley e.v., a network of companies, universities and others involved in materials technology in Germany's Rhein-Main region.

UV News March 7, 2007: Calgon Carbon And Trojan Settle UV Patent Disputes
Water Online

Pittsburgh, PA — Calgon Carbon Corporation CCC announced today that it has reached an agreement with Trojan Technologies (Trojan) regarding legal disputes related to certain Calgon Carbon patents for the use of ultraviolet light to disinfect drinking water (the "Calgon Carbon UV Patents"). This agreement resolves any and all claims by and between Calgon Carbon, Trojan, its customers, and consultants in the litigations that were pending in the Western District of New York and in Canada.

In exchange for an undisclosed cash payment by Trojan, Calgon Carbon will grant Trojan worldwide immunity from all current and future legal action related to the Calgon Carbon UV Patents.

Commenting on the announcement, John Stanik, president and chief executive officer of Calgon Carbon, said, "The agreement with Trojan signifies the end of a long and costly dispute between our two companies and allows Trojan and its customers worldwide to utilize the technology covered by the Calgon Carbon UV Patents for the control of Cryptosporidium and other pathogens in drinking water."

UV News February 9, 2007: UV Lamps generate ozone and remove greases and smells from exhaust air
Heraeus Noblelight (

Heraeus Noblelight is showing solutions with ultraviolet light for air treatment at the ISH/Aircontec exhibition, which takes place in Frankfurt from the 6th to 10th March. A particularly interesting application is the use of ozone-generating UV lamps in kitchen exhaust hoods. Here the UV radiation prevents grease deposits, prevents fires and saves cleaning costs. UV radiation is an environmentally friendly and economical alternative to chemical techniques. The ozone-generating UV radiation of the UV lamps can be measured in Heraeus Nobelight’s accredited measurement laboratory.

Treatment of Aerosols
The use of greases and oils in the kitchen leads to deposits in the kitchen exhaust hoods and the flues, so that there is both an increased danger of fire and the creation of a source smells. The physical method of UV radiation is an economical and environmentally friendly alternative to cost-intensive manual cleaning of the flues and frequent filter replacement.

By using special Heraeus UV lamps, ozone is generated inside the kitchen hood from the oxygen within the environmental air. The emitted radiation at a wavelength of 185nm is used to do this. The radiation at the longer wavelength of 254nm photolyses the ozone into excited oxygen, which oxidises the long chain molecules. Organic materials such as grease and aromatics are continuously “cold combusted” and broken down. The exhaust ducting and the exhaust hood remain grease-free, danger of fire is significantly reduced and cooking smells in the exhaust air are completely eliminated. Even at the high exhaust temperatures of up to 90ºC above a grill, the ozone-generating UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight are extremely powerful. They are particularly suitable for situations where a lot of grease is used to bake or fry, such as in fast food restaurants, large kitchens and in the industrial production of fish and meat meals.

Unique internal coating ensures long operating life.
The unique Heraeus Longlife coating of the lamp tube is responsible for the long life of their UV lamps. Moreover, the Heraeus Longlife coating is transparent to the very short ozone-generating UV radiation at a wavelength of 185nm. The operating life of the lamps is also significantly extended in this wavelength range compared with conventional techniques.

Measurement of the ozone-generating radiation in the Heraeus laboratory
UV radiation at a wavelength of 185nm is completely absorbed by the surrounding air at a distance of only 30cm from the lamp. Precise measurements should be carried out only under vacuum conditions. The Heraeus Measurement Laboratory has a vacuum chamber at its disposal and this is used for the complete and trouble-free detection of the 185nm radiation, which strongly absorbs oxygen. The design of the UV lamps can be optimally matched to customer requirements: the output-dependent efficiency is evaluated, the best mode of operation is defined and the output is optimized. By means of investigations in the wind tunnel at the Heraeus laboratory, the thermal parameters of the lamp can be observed so that the lamp can be optimized with the operating temperature. Ozone measuring equipment is used to check the generated ozone concentration. The lamps are precisely matched to the equipment and the application.
Heraeus Noblelight is a manufacturer of special light sources. At the ISH/Aircontec exhibition in Frankfurt/Main from the 6th to 10th March, Heraeus will be showing a wide range of ultraviolet lamps for air oxidation and air disinfection.

Since the development of UV lamp technology by Richard Kuech in 1904, Heraeus Noblelight can look back to more than 100 years of experience in the development, production and application of UV emitters. Through innovations such as Longlife technology, Heraeus continues to set milestones in the field of UV lamp technology to increase the productivity of industrial processes. Heraeus Noblelight is an original equipment supplier and a partner of choice for many systems’ builders involved in the disinfection of water, air and surfaces, as well as for manufacturers of systems for photo-chemistry and photo-oxidisation.

Heraeus Noblelight GmbH with its headquarters in Hanau, Germany and with subsidiaries in the USA, Great Britain and China, is one of the technology- and market-leaders in the production of specialist light sources. In 2005, Heraeus Noblelight had an annual turnover of 79 Million € and employed 644 people worldwide. The organization develops, manufactures and markets infrared and ultraviolet emitters for applications in industrial manufacture, environmental protection, medicine and cosmetics, research, development and analytical laboratories.

UV News February, 2007: Using UV for Simultaneous Disinfection and Control of Unpleasant Tastes and Odors in Drinking Water

Algae blooms in surface water sources often lead to off-tastes and odors in finished drinking water. Because public confidence in overall drinking water quality is closely related to aesthetic quality, there is increasing interest in solving taste and odor issues. UV-oxidation, the combination of UV and hydrogen peroxide, offers the ability to treat taste and odor (T&O) while simultaneously performing highly-effective UV disinfection.


Organic chemicals are responsible for off tastes and odors in drinking water. Algae and bacteria release such chemicals into the water (following an algae bloom). Geosmin, responsible for “earthy” odors, and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB), responsible for “musty” odors, are two examples of compounds that cause T&O. In addition to aesthetic impacts, certain types of blue-green algae produce toxic compounds (“algal toxins”), which can have both acute and chronic impacts on animals and humans. Microcystin is perhaps the best-know algal toxin, as it is regulated in several states/provinces and by the World Health Organization.

Due to their small molecular weight and limited ability to adsorb to carbon, these compounds are difficult to remove. Traditionally, water plants use powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon, ozone, or potassium permanganate to remove the compounds responsible for taste and odor.

UV technologies are currently experiencing rapid growth in municipal drinking water disinfection applications. For many utilities UV is the best option to comply with the enhanced disinfection requirements or provide a secondary barrier to chlorine-resistant pathogens. This is primarily based on UV`s ability to inactivate many microorganisms, especially Cryptosporidium, without forming harmful disinfection byproducts. In addition, there is a growing awareness of UV-based advanced oxidation processes for treating micropollutants in water. Many studies have recently identified UV-oxidation (UV in combination with hydrogen peroxide) as an efficient means to treat T&O-causing compounds in drinking water.

The following article describes the nature of the T&O problem, describes traditional solutions, and details the use of UV-oxidation for the simultaneous treatment of T&O/algal toxins and disinfection. Finally, the installation of UV-oxidation at Cornwall, Ontario, Canada is described.

UV News January 2, 2007: Avian flu virus unlikely to spread through wastewater and drinking water treatment systems, Cornell researchers find
By Krishna Ramanujan

A close relative of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) can be eliminated by waste and drinking water treatments, including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and bacterial digesters. The virus is harmless to humans but provides a study case of the pathways by which the influenza could spread to human populations.

Cornell researchers studied the related virus, called H5N2, to see whether a hypothetical mutated form of H5N1 could infect people through drinking and wastewater systems. Researchers at Cornell and the U.S. Military Academy at West Point collaborated on the study, published in a recent issue of Environmental Engineering Science.

H5N2, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus that is not contagious for humans, is physically similar to H5N1, which has been lethal to millions of birds globally and more than half of the almost 200 infected people mostly through handling infected birds, since 2003. Researchers and officials are concerned that if H5N1 mutates to transmit easily between people, a deadly global pandemic could occur.

"It is unknown if H5N1 is more resistant" than H5N2 to procedures used by the water management industry, said Araceli Lucio-Forster, the paper's lead author and a teaching support specialist in Cornell's Department of Microbiology and Immunology. Lucio-Forster will receive her Ph.D. in microbiology from Cornell in January 2007.

Because H5N1 requires high-level biosafety facilities, Lucio-Forster and colleagues used H5N2 as a surrogate virus. Given the similarities between the two viruses, she thinks that if H5N1 entered the water treatment system, "the virus should be inactivated, which means treated water may not be a likely source of transmission," said Lucio-Forster.

Overall, avian flu viruses do not survive well outside of a host. Still, the researchers tried to address concerns in the wastewater-treatment industry that if a human outbreak occurred, contaminated feces passing through the plant could infect plant workers and spread elsewhere through drinking water.

"You have some 50,000 treatment plants in the U.S., and all these operators that run the plants were concerned that if there were an influenza outbreak and everyone were sick, is it going to come into the plant and infect them and others," said co-author Dwight Bowman, a professor of parasitology at Cornell.

To test the effectiveness of UV radiation for killing the H5N2 virus, the researchers exposed the virus in drinking water as well as in wastewater effluents to UV light at varying levels. The treatment was very effective in killing H5N2 at levels well within industry standards (and at lower levels than are used for killing Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water).

For chlorine, which is mostly ubiquitous in U.S. drinking water, the results were less definitive. Inactivation of H5N2 depends on both chlorine concentrations and time of exposure. On average, U.S. treatment plants treat drinking water with chlorine concentrations of 1 milligram per liter for 237 minutes. Under these conditions, the researchers found that H5N2 (and probably H5N1) would be mostly inactivated, but further studies are needed to see if the viruses stay active when they come out of feces or are at different pH and salinity levels.

Similarly, the small laboratory-scale study found that bacterial digesters also reduced H5N2 to undetectable levels after 72 hours, which is consistent with industry standards. The researchers also found that higher digester temperatures inactivated the virus more quickly.

The UV and chlorine tests were conducted at the U.S. Military Academy.

UV News December 20, 2006: Motorola patents cell phone that kills hidden bugs in microphones, earpiece cavities

US mobile phone giant Motorola has patented a cellphone that kills bacteria lodged in the microphone and earpiece cavities.

The phone contains an LED that radiates ultra-violet light with a wavelength of 250 nanometres, which is particularly lethal to bacteria.

Optical guides inside the phone body steer the UV light into the cavities and sanitising takes just three minutes.

Motorola has said this is a novel way to kill bugs, as squirting germicide into the holes can damage the internal electronics of a cellphone.

Also to protect the owner against UV exposure, the light only shines when a flip cover is closed over the cavities, and to save battery drain, the light is only activated when the phone is being charged.

According to New Scientist, Motorola has also made an alternative design, in which the phone comes with a charger, which contains a UV lamp with "light pipes" that channel light into the phone when it is sitting in its cradle.

UV News December 5, 2006: EPA issues final UV disinfection manual
WASHINGTON, WaterTechOnline

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released the final guidance manual for using ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology for bringing public water supplies into compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act, the American Water Works Association's WaterWeek reported recently.

The 436-page manual, which can be downloaded from the EPA Web site, is designed for surface water systems required to install treatment under the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the report noted.

The manual provides background on fundamentals of UV light, microbial response to UV light, and UV reactors, according to the article.

The document also offers guidance on selection, design, installation, testing, startup, operation, maintenance, monitoring, recording and reporting of UV disinfection to comply with treatment requirements under the LT2 rule, the story said.

UV News December 5, 2006: Medium pressure UV for German water supplies
News Release from: Berson UV-techniek
Edited by the Processingtalk Editorial Team

Dutch company Berson UV-techniek has won the contract to supply a Berson InLine100+ medium pressure UV disinfection system to the Lahn-Dill-Kreis region of Hesse in Germany. The UV system will treat drinking water for a number of towns in the southern part of the region. The Berson system is certified by DVGW according to the new norm W294, parts 1, 2 and 3 (2006).

According to Mr Schnackenwinkel of the Lahn-Dill-Kreis Water Board, 'We chose the Berson InLine100+ unit because of its automatic, mechanical wiping system.

This keeps the quartz sleeves surrounding the UV lamps clean at all times - ensuring maximum UV efficiency - without the use of chemicals.

Chemical cleaning, a necessity with DVGW-approved low pressure UV systems currently on the market, is costly and environmentally unfriendly so we are pleased to have found a cleaner, lower cost alternative'.

Adwin de Vocht, Berson International Sales Manager, added, 'Chemical cleaning is also inefficient because a thin film of fouling is usually left behind.

This means that low pressure systems currently available have to be completely dismantled every few months for additional mechanical cleaning, a complex procedure requiring each quartz sleeve to be removed and manually cleaned.

This time-consuming and costly process requires the UV system to be out of action for at least a day.

It also produces unwanted waste products which have to be dealt with effectively'.

Another advantage of medium pressure UV is more effective inactivation of micro-organisms.

Recent research has shown that Escherichia coli is able to recover more easily following exposure to low pressure UV lamps.

This is less likely with medium pressure UV (see references 1, 2 and 3).

Based in the Netherlands, Berson UV is a world leader in UV technology for a wide range of applications, including drinking, process and waste-water treatment, dechlorination, ozone removal and TOC reduction.

It is one of the few suppliers in Germany capable of providing a complete range of UV systems certified to the newest DVGW, W294 norm.



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